Chapter 5 notes.docx

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McGill University
Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 350
Celena Scheede- Bergdahl

Chapter 5 Designing cardiorespiratory exercise programs *Need to know if it is safe to exercise them, what there max HR, do they have any contradictions, need to set goals If they just want to get in shape you may not need to due max test If they are coming to you and need to decrease cholesterol than you need to go full force Want a baseline measure because people want to see improvements Objectives  Identify the basic components of a cardiorespiratory (CR) exercise program  Tailor exercise prescriptions to meet an individual’s goals****  Identify exercise modalities for CR programming  Differentiate between various CR programming techniques  Identify the physiological benefits of CR program adherence  Understand dose–response relationships for frequency, intensity, and duration as they pertain to aerobic fitness The Art of Exercise Prescription  Exercise program must meet client’s needs and interest; what is the client’s goal  Programming for improved health is different than programming for cardiorespiratory fitness- use different guidelines  The key is individualization Do you work them more intensely with specific exercise goals b/c they have health problem or do they just want to get fit and can use less specificity Elements of CR Workout 1. Warm-up: increase blood flow – dec. chance of muscular injury (5-10min): low-moderate intensity increase of aerobic activity 2. Endurance: aerobic conditioning (20-60min) varying intensity 3. Cool down: reduce cardiovascular complication risk (5-10min) low intensity 4. Stretching: reduce chance of soreness and cramps (>10mins) Structure remains the same Want to increase blood flow to the region. Going from starting to exercise you have oxygen dept., but when you warm up before your already prepared, blood flow and oxygen is already at the muscles – need to recruit a lot of capillaries Vessels are totally dilated, can faint if you don’t do an active cool down  active recovery you are pumping the blood back to heart but just relaying on vein valves Prescription for Improved Health  Frequency: most, preferably all days of the week  Intensity: moderate intensity (3-6 METs)  Time: 150 to 300 minutes/week; varies related to intensity  Type: modality of endurance-type activities CRF  Frequency: 3 to 5 days a week  Intensity: related to initial fitness status; use % heart rate reserve (HRR) or VO2 reserve (VO2R)  Time: 20-60 minutes continuous exercise  Mode: rhythmic, aerobic, large muscle groups  Progression: based on conditioning effect Modalities for CR prescriptions  Large muscle groups – consuming more energy having higher metabolic demand (3.5ml/kg/min) Upper boy, typically working at higher HR and lower VO2max  Rhythmic  Provide mechanism to initially monitor intensity o not highly dependant on skill level  Progress from type A modalities to types B and C as skill and fitness levels increase o Type A: minimal skill/fitness to perform (walking cycling) o Type B: virorous-intensity, minimal skill but average PF (jogging, spinning step aerobics)  Good for initial and improvement stages for regular exercisers o Type c: endurance activities that require both high level of skill and average PF (swimming, skating)  Include type D modalities in addition to regular program; great for adding variety  recreational sports (basketball, soccer, hiking) Alternative CR Modalities  Options are available beyond traditional CR modalities  Varying levels of perceived exertion (RPE) exist for a given HR or %V2 max response  Cycling has high-localized fatigue in legs  higher RPE than treadmill, even though lower %VO2max  Some result in higher HR than when on a treadmill exercisingat a similar %VO 2ax  At same RPE, a treadmill produces greater energy expenditure, greater VO2max (total O2 consumption) Not all forms of exercise produce the same response, may not be the same on the treadmill and swimming Might not get same responses for a given intensity if you change the modality  due to Recruiting different muscle types Change modality may not be at same HR, may have to adjust intensity How to Progress CR Workload  Increase treadmill speed and incline  Increase cycling RPM and resistance  Increase step cadence and height for aerobic or bench stepping  Include upper body component or use light hand weights with lower body exercise  Increase velocity for in-line skating Need to increase intensity or duration so client doesn’t get bored Selecting CR Modality for Older Adults  Focus on functional, Enjoyable,convenient exercises  Walking and tai chi are good options (treadmills can be good, have handles to hold on to)  Consider the following o Deterioration vision/balance o Neuromuscular coordination challenges o Musculoskeletal challenges o Functional aerobic capacity Want to prolong their functionality ex. Getting off and sitting down on a chair Selecting Intensity  ACSM recommends using %VO reserve (%VO R) over other options  equivalent to % Heart rate reserve (HRR) 2 2  What is VO 2?  VO 2 = (VO 2ax (or peak) – VO r2st) o Directly related to aerobic fitness o Forms the basis of exercise prescription o Equates (1:1) with heart rate reserve (HRR: max HR-rest HR) o Can also substitute METS for VO2 o Rest = 3.5ml/kg/min = 1 MET Someone with a larger reserve is more fit Exercuse intensity and duration are indirectly related  inc. intensity = dec. duration Assess indv. starting CRF, goas for program, exercise preferences, injury risk Can improve CRF w/ either low intensity longer duration or high intensity short duration exercises Low-moderate intensity w/ longer duration are recommended b/c high intesntiy is associated w/ increased risk of orthopedic injury and discourages participation in exercise program Prescribing Exercise by VO R2 Must be adequate to stress the CVS but without overtaxing it  For sedentary individuals with poor initial fitness & older people: Start in range 30% to 45%2VO R  For healthy individuals: Start in range 40% to 85% V2 R  To improve CR fitness: Exercise in range 55% to 80 % VO2R  To keep improving CR fitness: Systemically increase % VO2R The higher the intensity you work at the more benefits you get, at higher heart rate max reserves Example using VO R 2  Assume VO m2x = 50 ml/kg/min and target intensity is 60% to 80%VO R. 2  VO 2 = 50 – 3.5 = 46.5 ml/kg/min  Target VO 2 (.60 x 46.5) + 3.5  Target VO 2 27.9 + 3.5 = 31.4 ml/kg/min  Target VO 2 (.80 x 46.5) + 3.5  Target VO 2 37.2 + 3.5 = 40.7 ml/kg/min Good when working with healthy individuals who can perform max test, for other populations Heart Rate Reserve is more popular Example using METs  Assume VO m2x = 10 METs and target intensity is 50% of VO R2  Target VO 2 [.50 x (10 – 1)] + 1  Target VO 2 (.50 x 9) + 1  Target VO 2 4.5 + 1 = 5.5 METs  Can now convert METs to ml/kg/min. Need to add rest back in so it will take them above and beyond what their resting values are Calculating Running Speed at 8 METs  8 METs = 8 x 3.5 = 28 ml/kg/min  28 ml/kg/min = [(speed m/min) x 0.2] + 3.5  Isolate speed  28 – 3.5 = [(speed m/min) x 0.2]  24.5 ÷ 0.2 = (speed m/min)  122.5 m/min = speed  Convert to mph.  122.5 ÷ 26.8 = 4.57 mph Calculating Running Pace From MPH  Pace = [(60 min/hr)/mph]  Pace = 60 ÷ 4.57 (from previous example)  Pace = 13.1 min/mi (or 8.1 min/km) Word of Caution About METs  MET values in compendium (get wide value of METs)  MET values differ for youth and adults  Values are estimates of energy expenditure  Environmental factors and skill level can influences actual energy expenditure  Better to use METs plus either HR or RPE to keep client at a safe intensity Individuals who are mechanically efficient or extremely mechanically efficient the exercise modality may be more or less taxing and therefore be working at different MET levels Exercise Intensity and HR  Prescribing exercise based on HR is easy, but comes with limitations-especially when estimating maximal HR (HRmax) from age or given certain environmental or medical factor  Three methods to choose fro
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