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Lecture 2

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Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 498
Gordon Bloom

10/11/2012 1:31:00 PM Personality  Dynamic organization inside the person of psychophysical systems that create a person’s characteristic patterns of behavior o How an indv. adapts to certain situations o Stresses individual differences of each person o Most related to individual differences (what makes each person unique) Disposition  Broad, pervasive (spreading widely though a group of people), encompassing way of relating to particular types of people or situations. It is a stable construct that involves the way a person is likely to behave across situations and over time o Person’s inherent qualities of mind and character  Sweet-natured girl of placid disposition o Stable over time (consistent way of dealing with situations/behaving) States*  Momentary/brief feelings/thoughts that change depending on situation and time Trait*  Identifiable stable characteristic or quality that may represent a portion of one’s personality (mental toughness) o Represents ideas about a person’s disposition  May be core/central elements of personality o Something you are born with o Something that defines you *states and traits can be used to predict human behavior/performance Personality traits  People have certain traits that influence behavior  Trait theory: o Consistency and generalizability of behavior o 2 models  Cattell’s Trait Personality model  16 different personality trait dichotomies  1960-70  implied successful athletes shared similar traits (cannot be transferred over to sports psyc)  Digman’s five factor model think “OCEAN”  Openness to experience  Conscientiousness  Extroversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism # 1 MODEL can NOT be applied to sports psyc How does it develop? 10/11/2012 1:31:00 PM How does it develop?  Psychodynamic approach Sigmund Freud o How subconscious affects your behavior  All behavior is interconnected and driven by unconscious forces/inner drives  Thought/feelings motivate behaviors  3 parts  ID: instinctual and driving force of personaitly (pleasure principle)  Wants  Ego: mediates an indv. relationship with environment (reality principle)  Defences  Super-ego: voice of conscience and morality. Mediates ego and ID  Morality o All behavior stems from conflict and compromise of Freuds three components; wants of ID, defenses of ego, morality of superego  Between immediate wants, reality of obtaining those wants, and the morality of obtaining them  not a long lasting approach on sports psyc. Only some info can be applied to the field. Has laid the foundation for psychology  Humanistic approach o Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs (1954)  Focuses on personal responsibility, human growth, personal striving, and individual dignity  Once basic needs are met, individuals strive to meet higher needs  Good approach for working with athletes Self actualization: doing something that has a huge benefit for society, doing something for something bigger then yourself o Terry fox running across the country for cancer awareness and fundraising  Cognitive approach o BF skinner- rat research  Behaviorism:  behaviour learned though experience  Behaviour followed by reward would increase in probability of reoccurrence; behaviour followed by punishment would decrease probability or reoccurrence  Focused on examining how situations and indv. reciprocally influence each other  Lost prominence once people realized goals & beliefs affect behavior  Social learning theory o Behavior is learned through experience as opposed to what you think or feel  Indv. can learn by being exposed to, or observing, the behaviours of others  i.e. watching behaviors of elite athletes  More likely to adopt behavior if it results in valued outcome o 3 influencing factors  situational expectancies  generalized expectancies  reinforcement value o People are motivated to seek out positive stimulation and avoid negative interactions or stimulations o Rotter (1950)- behavior and personality were changeable o Bandura- emphasized importance of observational learning  Research on aggression in children  directly transferrable to sports psyc  If a behavior is seen as resulting in an outcome that the observer values, observer is more likely to adopt that behavior  Interactionist approach- most preferred approach o Situational interaction b/w an indv. and environment determines an athlete’s behavior o Try to understand how various traits affect behavior depending on sport context o Neither an individuals personality nor the situation exclusively dictates behavior  Always a mix of the two  Measurements 10/11/2012 1:31:00 PM many loop holes in measuring personality, not a center focus for many researchers Projective tests  Subjective, open ended questions  Not typically used in sports psyc Objective tests  Highly standardized tests (IQ test)  Do not require the tester to interpret the meaning of the participants responses  Present subject with choices (T/F, scale)
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