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Lecture 4

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Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 498
Gordon Bloom

Psychological factors in athletic injuries 10/13/2012 9:37:00 AM Accidental injuries are leading cause of death for people <19yrs  >40% of brain injuries in children ages 10-19 are results from sports/recreational activities People / high levels of stress have more sport-related injuries Physical factors = primary cause of athletic injuries  Psyc. Factors are contributing o Impact occurrence, rehabilitation, future re-injury Andersen & Williams (’88) model of stress and athletic injuries  Potentially stressful situation  perception of threat  Stress response (inc. state anxiety)  attention/distraction (muscle tension)  injury  Personality factors, history of stressors, coping resources, psychological skill intervention ALL play an EQUAL role in these steps How they happen 10/13/2012 9:37:00 AM Physical factors EXTREMELY important  Some athletes more susceptible to injury than others o Programs should be designed with this in mind  Psychological factors can lead to a greater change of athletic injuries o Teammates may also experience emotional responses to injuries of others on the team Psyc. factors  Personality factors o People with certain personality traits more likely to get injured?  not successfully measure/indentified o Personality may be a moderator for injury NOT a cause  Stress levels o More stress = higher chance of injury  ESPECIALLY IF THERE IS NO SOCIAL SUPPORT o Low self esteem = slower recovery from injury o How one copes with stress may affect the relationship b/w stress and injury Note: not every athlete deals with injury in the same way Stress/injury relationship 10/13/2012 9:37:00 AM 1. increased muscle tension  high stress can be accompanied by considerable muscle tension that interferes with normal coordination & increases chance of injury o monitor athletes who may be experiencing significant life changes  may be more important in some sports vs others 2. attentional disruption (similar to #1)  stress disrupts attention by reducing peripheral attention o attention to your surroundings  inc. state anxiety causes distractional irrelevant thoughts  can be caused by another teammates injury or stressful life- situations 3. act tough, give 110%  athletes/exercisers must be taught to distinguish the normal discomfort associated with overload/increased training volumes from the pain associated with injury  “no pain no gain”  overuse injuries prevalent in young athletes  push themselves too far o year round training programs can lead to increased prevalence of injury o parents can play a factor in over training/not enough recovery time 4. if you’re injured, you’re worthless  some people learn to feel worthless when they are injured o causes them to play while hurt in order to feel worthy (serious effect to self- esteem) o may be over-rewarded for playing through an injury crowd cheering when hurt player returns to game  coaches ignore injured athletes side note: do coaches encourage their athletes to play injured? Psychological reactions to injury 10/13/2012 9:37:00 AM speed/ease in which they process through states varies  most experience a typical response period immediately following injury is characterized by the greatest negative emotional response  Emotional responses o May be emotionally agitated, feel shock, denial, self pity o Grief response process by Hardy & Crace (’90) same response to losing a loved one  Denial: conscious/unconscious refusal to accept facts/info/reality  Anger: “why me”  Bargaining: attempt to bargain or rationalize to avoid reality of situation  Depression: self worth is an issue, depression sets in due to the reality of the situation being fully realized  Acceptance: comes to terms with injury  Reorganization: rearrangement of life in order to accommodate injury  Research shows that even though an injured athlete may exhibit these emotions, it doesn’t necessarily follow this sequence of events  Typical response to injury should be viewed more flexibly (no pre-determined order of emotions) o Udry- what are his conclusion!?!?! Athletes reaction to injury  Identity loss o Some athletes base all of their identity on playing their sport o Serious damage to self-concept  Travis Roy: lost the ability to use his legs during his first college career hockey game. Didn’t let it affect his life too much  stayed positive, didn’t lose himself to the injury  2. Fear and anxiety o w
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