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LING 201 (64)
Lecture

syntax

15 Pages
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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 201
Professor
Brian Mc Gill

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LING201:Introduction to Linguistics 9th Conference: Syntax 3 - Solution A. HEAD MOVEMENT Draw trees for the following sentences. HAVE and BE (1) a. Nick might be singing. b. Nick might have been singing. c. Nick is singing. d. Nick has been singing. e. Nick has sung. (1a) Nick might be singing. (1b) Nick might have been singing. 1 (1c) Nick is singing. 1 (1d) Nick has been singing. (1e) Nick has sung. 1 This diagram was created using the tree generator at http://mshang.github.com/syntree/ by entering the expression:[IP [NP [N' [N Nick]]] [I' [I_a has] [VP [V' [V t ] [VP [V' [V been] [VP [V' [V singing]]]]] 2 Note: the trees for (1c-e) reflect the assumption that be and have are always merged under V and that inflected forms of these verbs (is, are, has, …) reach the position under I via head movement (i.e. V-to-I movement). B. XP MOVEMENT (WH-MOVEMENT) Draw trees for the following sentences. I. CONTENT QUESTIONS (1Who did you see? CP 4 NP C’ 1 4 N’ C IP 1 1 4 N didNP I’ 1 1 4 who N’I VP 1 1 1 N t V’ 1 4 you V NP 1 1 see t 3 (2When did you go? CP 4 PP C’ 1 4 P’ C IP 1 1 4 P diNP I’ 1 1 4 whenN’ I VP 1 1 1 N t V’ 1 4 you V’ PP 1 1 V t 1 go We can assume that when is a PP here (and therefore has a P head) because it usually replaces a PP (in the morning, after lunch, etc.). It’s also okay if you make it a AdvP (e.g., yesterday, then, etc. for when; there, outdoors, etc. for where). (3Where did they sleep? CP 4 PP C’ 1 4 P’ C IP 1 1 4 P diNP I’ 1 1 4 wherN’ I VP 1 1 1 N t V’ 1 4 they V’ PP 1 1 V t 1 sleep 4 We can assume that where is a PP here (and therefore has P head) because it usually replaces a PP (in the car, on the roof, etc.) It’s also okay if you make it a AdvP. (4)Who saw you? CP 4 NP C’ 1 4 N’ C IP 1 4 N NP I’ 1 1 4 who t I VP 1 1 [+pst] V’ 4 V NP 1 1 saw N’ 1 N 1 you Note that do-support does not apply in subject content questions (* Who did see you? would only be acceptable if did was interpreted emphatically). If we assume that do is generally inserted under C after the movement of tense features to C in examples like Who did Mary see ?, then we could say that I-to-C movement does happen in ( 4), but do-support is blocked. If we assume that do is generally inserted under I before I-to-C movement happens, we could say that do-support is blocked in (4) and thus I-to-C movement doesn’t happen. There are other ways of describing what’s going on in ( 4), but which assumption we followdo-support doesn’t this course. What’s important is that apply in subject content questions. II. COMPLEX WH-PHRASES (5)Which student of physics will you invite? 5 CP NP C’ 3 4 DetN’ C IP 1 3 1 4 which PP wNPl I’ 1 1 1 4 studeP’ N’ I VP 3 1 1 1 P NP N t V’ 1 1 1 4 of N’ you V NP 1 1 1 N invitt 1 physics (6How long should the essay be? CP 4 AP C’ 3 4 AdA’ C IP 1 1 1 4 HoA should I’ 1 2 4 lonDeN’I VP 1 11 1 thN t V’ 1 3 essaV AP 1 1 be t How could be under Deg (textbook) (7On which table will we place the napkins? 6 CP PP C’ 1 4 P’ C IP 3 1 4 P NP wiNP I’ 1 3 1 4 onDet N’ N’ I VP 1 1 1 1 1 whichN
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