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Linguistics 201(patrial)

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LING 201
Jozina Van Der Klok

Ling 201 9/7 Human Language is creative 5Linguistics is the scientific study of the human language cell phone- linguist is behind the cell phone- how the communication actually happens linguist goes behind the scenes and not only uses communication, but understands it 6there are 5 core areas phonetics- the study of speech sounds and how they are articulated and perceived. Difference between s and z phonology- organizations of speech sounds and how they create a language morphology- word formation- affixation, how they form, root plus suffix to get the word 7syntax- how the subject and the verb make a clause semantics- study of interpretation of the words and sentences and what we get out of them interface/applied and experimental areas language and the core areas can be studied from so many different directions how babies learn first second third language 9picture linguistics overlaps with most other disciplines in some way 11linguist studies the inner workings of language, not something on the slide linguist describe the patterns of language, bot what we should or shouldn't do prescriptive rules consciously learned, often broken 16long and short comparatives mary is taller than I am mary is taller than I because we can delete the verb then 2 can exist but 1 cannot. This is trying to say that grammar can be extended too far. 1mary is taller than me am 2mary is taller than me the short version is not always a short version of a long version. This all says that there are 2 structures- mary is taller than me and mary is taller than I am slide 22 prescriptive grammar describes what we should do, and it can be based on faulty assumptions like long and short comparatives, they arent, but they are 2 structures prescriptive grammarians can be wrong descriptive grammar concerns what we do, rules we never break and that language is instinctive rules and universals rules all languages are enormously complex, underneath the complexity, they all have a set structure systematic properties of a language are rules language is rule governed at all levels of structure cross linguistic variation linguists are interested in determining the contrast and compare of languages 94% of the population speaks 6% of its languages universals many rules are shared by many or even all languages statistical universals grammatical order unrestricted universals all languages have vowels and consonants/nouns and verb/yes no questions implicational universals if this the this languages with suffixes are postpositional, languages with prefixes are prepostitional slides 30-36. bullshit near universal- tl at the start of a word is near impossible in most languages throughout the world 9/10 tl is not usable for the onset of syllables, not just words universal Tlingit- tl is an is an affricate one phoneme, not consonant cluster read chapter 2, learn IPA for english** IPA- international phonetic alphabet- not much emphasis on spelling spelling does not have a 1-1 correspondence between sound and symbol 1 letter can be more than one sound {T} one sound can also come from more than one letter {f,ph} IPAuses 1-1 symbol to sign correspondence stops can be held, or released plosive=stop Phonetics- the branch of linguistics that examines the inventory and structure of the saounds of a language articulatory- physiological production of the sound voice, manner of sound acoustic- study of sound waves resulting from speech duration, intensity, pitch= 3 components that make up strength different languages emphasizes the 3 in different ways How are sounds produced air in lungs go into the vocal tract->larynx/adam's apple/voice-box=sound source- >trachea=vocal folds, open or closed->pharynx=1 filter->oral cavity=2 filter, many different ways to manipulate->nasal cavity, air can pass into either oral or nasal cavity through
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