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Lecture 10

LING 320 Lecture 10: ling320_02.09.17

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LING 320
Charles Boberg

Chapter 8 02/09/17 LING 320 LECTURE 10: Language Change - 1960s civil rights movement - racial backgrounds with equal opportunities - main social agenda of sociolinguistics was ridding stigmas around non-standard varieties of English, particularly AAE because of long history of prejudice and exclusion - Labov famous for advancing idea that AAE is a legitimate, systematic language and grammar - many studies of AAE come out during this time 2 Subfields of Language Change - traditional approach of historical linguistics - sociolinguistic approach of language change - language change is a universal phenomenon; all languages change all the time - if a language is not changing, it is “dead” (e.g. Latin) - sociolinguistics interested in actual language change as it occurs within the community Old English - Beowulf written 8th century - takes place in Denmark, Beowulf called to get rid of monster in King’s court - written in a time while anglo-saxons still lived in mainland Europe - entirely Germanic (similar to German and Dutch, Danish) - system of germanic alliteration pattern (s—s—s in a line, d-d-d in another etc.) Middle English - Geoffrey Chaucer, Cantebury Tales, written 1387 - stories of a martyr (Cantebury) who became martyr of Catholicism, people made pilgrimage to Cantebury after the fact - norman invasion results in addition of romance vocabulary, simplification of grammar, changes in the rhyming of poetic verse - no more old english characters, use of standard roman alphabet - european system of end rhyme - anglo-saxon endings have disappeared, retention only of final e (roote, wende) Early Modern English - King James bible, “The authorized king james version” 1611 - more probably reflects 16th century (1500) level english - result of the protestant reformation - king henry VIII reforms church to include divorce, abandons catholic church, and the church of England is created - also similar religious developments like Calvin and Luther in Germany - idea of direct connection and personal relationship between worshipper and God - therefore gospels had to be made accessible and understandable to worshippers, and so the bible is translated into the vernacular of English (from Latin) so that they might understand what the priest is saying - also during the time of Shakespeare - much of the language changes in this bible considered basis of modern English - retention of second person singular form in preference for the “polite” second person plural (loss of thou/the and thy/ye) Chapter 8 02/09/17 - some inflections of older english (do-est, walk-eth) - negation patterns (let not thy… instead of do not let…) Language Change - internal linguistic forces - external, non-linguistic forces - reflects both the internal and external history/influences of these factors - Norman invasions in Anglo-Saxon world; entire world flls apart in a few weeks - 3 contenders fo
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