Ling 390 8

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McGill University
LING 390
Andrea Nicole Santi Isabelle Deschamps

Sept 28 - covered the framework of language and the framework of the nervous system, and the relationship between brain and behaviour, as well as the experimental methods - now we apply what we know: we're starting with speech - two branches of Ling that deal with speech: phonetics and phonology - we're going to do three studies (lesion, fMRI and MEG) to determine things about speech - 3 branches of Phonetics: articulatory (producer), auditory (perceiver) and acoustic (what happens in between) - Phones are the smallest units of speech: as speakers, we have some knowledge about speech units - when we see the acoustic phonetics, things look like one continuous event, but we perceive the three phones when we're speaking - spoonerisms: saying Melcome Wat for Welcome Mat (clear that we know that these things are different) Basic parameters of Consonental Speech: vocal chords can alter the sounds that we make -Glottal state: either voiceless or voiced - voiceless: vocal folds pull apart and air passage is reasonably unimpaired - voiced: vocal folds close together and vibrate - since we have a descended larynx, it was hypothesized that this helped us to make such a big range of speech sounds - Place of articulation : point in oral cavity where two articulators come together - Labial : bilabial (between two lips) and labiodental (lower lip and upper teeth) - dental: dental (tongue tip and back of upper teeth) and interdental (tongue tip and edges of teeth - Alveolar: between tip of tongue and ridge behind upper teeth - alveopalatal: between tongue tip/blade and hard palatte - Velar: constriction between tongue body and soft palatte -Manner of Articulation - Oral vs. Nasal: velum raised = oral, lowered = nasal - Stop: complete blockage of airflow in the oral cavity - Fricative: narrowing of vocal tract, but continuous air flow - Affricate: stop blockage followed by fricative release of air Co-Articulation: speech production is not a series of isolated events - often results in the articulation of one sound partially overlapping that of another immediately adjacent sound (usually a vowel) (sheet vs. shoe = liprounding) - speakers "know" when two sounds should be classified as the same even though the physical stimulus is changing (like illusions, our physical perception is not the same as the stimulus) - infants discriminate phonetically relevant speech contrasts in any of the world's language (japanese babies can discriminate between l and r) - we're born with the ability and then it changes - phonetic representations: when do they change? sometime between 6-8 mon
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