Class Notes (974,342)
CA (573,882)
McGill (34,740)
MGCR (719)
MGCR 222 (109)
Lecture 12

MGCR 222 Lecture Notes - Negotiation, Satisficing, Counterproductive Work Behavior
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by OneClass1772926 , Fall 2016
34 Pages
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Fall 2016

Department
Management Core
Course Code
MGCR 222
Professor
Alfred Jaeger
Lecture
12

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!""#$%&'defined&as&a&broad&range&of&feelings&that&people&experience& in&the&form&of&emotions&or&moods
Emotions&are&information
Decisions&must&incorporate&emotions&to&be&effective
Emotions&must&follow&logical&patterns
Functions:
())*%+,-*.&'expressing&emotions&publically&may&be&damaging&to&social&status
/*%+,-*.&'emotions&are&critical& to&rational&decision<making&and&help&us&understand&the&world&
around&us
Emotions&are&information&and&decisions&must&incorporate&them&to&be&effective&since&emotions&
follow&logical&patterns
01,%+,-2&'caused&by&a&specific&event,&very&brief&in&duration&(seconds&or&minutes),&specific&and&
numerous&in&nature,&usually&accompanied&by&distinct&facial&expressions&and&action&oriented&in&nature&<
ignored&in&OB&as&it&was&believed&that&emotions&are&disruptive&in&the&workplace,&when&in&reality&they&
cannot&be&separated&from&the&workplace&<
3,,4&'cause&is&often&general&and&unclear,&lasts&longer&than&emotions&(hours&or&days),&more&general&
(two&main&dimensions&<positive&affect&and&negative&affect&<comprised&of&multiple&specific&emotions),&
generally&not&indicated&by&distinct&expressions,&and&cognitive&in&nature
5,6)$#2&,"&01,%+,-2&'personality,&time&of&the&day,&day&of&the&week,&social&activities,&sleep,&exercise,&
stress,&age,&etc.&
Remember&positive&information
Overestimate&the&likelihood&that&good&events&will&occur
Underestimate&the&occurrence&of&bad&events&
Adopt&simplified,&shortcut&decision<making&strategies,&more&likely&violating&the&rational&
model&
Make&more&creative,&intuitive&decisions
7#,8.#&+-&*&9,,4&3,,4&'
Remember&negative&information&
Evaluate&objects,&people,&and&events&more&negatively&
Overestimate&the&likelihood&that&bad&events&will&occur
Underestimate&the&occurrence&of&good&events&
Adopt&a&more&deliberate,&systematic,&detailed&decision<making&strategy
7#,8.#&+-&*&:*4&3,,4&'
7,2+%+;#&!""#$%&'a&mood&dimension&consisting&of&positive&emotions&such&as&excitement,&self<
assurance,&and&cheerfulness&at&the&high&end,&and&boredom,&sluggishness,&and&tiredness&at&the&low&
end
<#=*%+;#&!""#$%&'a&mood&dimension&consisting&of&nervousness,&stress,&and&anxiety&at&the&high&end&
and&relaxation,&tranquility,&and&poise&at&the&low&end
7,2+%+;+%>&?""2#%&'at&zero&input&(when&nothing&particular&is&going&on),&most&individuals&experience&
a&mildly&positive&mood
(18*$%&,"&01,%+,-2&,-&@#$+2+,-&3*A+-=&'
B6-$%+,-2&,"&01,%+,-2&'previous&observations&have&suggested&that&rationality&and&emotion&are&in&
conflict,&and&that&if&you&exhibit&emotion&you&are&likely&to&act&irrationally&or&displaying&emotions&is&so&
toxic&to&a&career&that&people&experiencing&them&should&leave&the&room&than&allow&others&to&witness&it&<
research&is&increasingly&showing&that&&we&must&have&the&ability&to&experience& emotions&in&order&to&be&
rational&because&our&emotions&provide&important&information&about&how&we&understand&the&world&
around&us
01,%+,-*.&@+22,-*-$#&'when&employees&have&to&project&one&emotion&while&simultaneously&
feeling&another,&which&can&be&very&damaging&and&lead&to&exhaustion&or&burning&out
B#.%&01,%+,-&'when&the&felt&emotion&is&the&individual's&actual&emotions
@+28.*>#4&01,%+,-&'those&emotions&that&the&organization&requires&workers&to&show&or&
considers&appropriate&<they&are&learned
56)"*$#&!$%+-=&'hiding&inner&feelings&and&forgoing&emotional&expressions&in&response&to&
display&rules&<deals&with&displayed&emotions&=&more&stressful&and&exhausting&to&employees&
so&it&is&important&to&give&those&employees&a&chance&to&relax&and&recharge
@##8&!$%+-=&'trying&to&modify&our&true&inner&feelings&based&on&display&rules&<deals&with&felt&
emotions
01,%+,-2&+-&?)=*-+C*%+,-2&
01,%+,-*.&D*E,)&'an&employee's&expression&of&organizationally&desired&emotions&during&interpersonal&
transactions&at&work
Cases&For:
(-%6+%+;#&!88#*.&'intuition&suggests&people&who&can&detect&emotions&in&others,&control&their&own&
emotions,&and&handle&social&interactions&well&have&a&powerful&advantage&in&the&business&world
7)#4+$%2&F)+%#)+*&%G*%&3*%%#)2&'EI&correlates&with&moderately&with&job&performance
(%&+2&:+,.,=+$*..>&:*2#4&'EI&is&neurologically&based&in&a&way&that&is&unrelated&to&standard&measures&
of&intelligence&and&it&is&genetically&influenced,&further&supporting&the&idea&that&it&measures&a&real&
underlying&biological&factor
Cases&Against:
H,,&I*=6#&*&F,-$#8%&'it&has&become&so&broad&and&the&components&so&variegated&that&it&is&no&
longer&even&an&intelligible& concept
F*-J%&:#&3#*26)#4&'it&is&argued&that&because&EI&is&a&form&of&intelligence,& there&must&be&right&or&
wrong&answers&for&it&on&tests&and&although&some&tests&do,&the&validity&of&some&questions&is&
doubtful&<the&measures&are&diverse&and&researchers&have&not&subjected&them&to&as&much&
rigorous&study&as&they&have&measures&of&personality&and&general&intelligence
I*.+4+%>&,"&0(&+2&5628#$%&'there&is&not&much&research&on&whether&EI&adds&insight&beyond&measures&
of&personality&and&general&intelligence&in&predicting&job&performance&
01,%+,-*.&(-%#..+=#-$#&'a&person's&ability&to&be&self<aware&(recognize&one's&own&emotions),&detect&
emotions&in&others,&and&manage&emotional&cues&and&information&<plays&an&important&role&in&job&
performance&but&not&wholly&accepted
5#.#$%+,-&'emotional&intelligence& should&be&a&hiring&factor,&especially&for&jobs&with&a&high&degree&
of&social&interaction
@#$+2+,-&3*A+-=&'positive&emotions&can&lead&to&better&decisions&as&people&who&are&in&positive&
moods&or&experiencing&positive&emotions&are&more&likely&than&others&to&use&heuristics,&or&rules&of&
thumb&to&help&make&good&decisions&quickly
F)#*%+;+%>&'positive&mood&increases&flexibility,&openness,&and&creativity&and&produce&more&ideas&
and&options&rather&than&negative&moods&<all&the&activating&moods&(positive&or&negative)&seem&to&
lead&to&more&creativity&
3,%+;*%+,-&'positive&mood&affects&expectations&of&success&and&feedback&can&amplify&this&effect&<
a&cycle&can&exist&in&which&positive&moods&cause&people&to&be&more&creative,&leading&to&positive&
feedback,&reinforcing&the&positive&mood&and&may&make&performance&better,&and&so&on
D#*4#)2G+8&'emotions&are&important&to&acceptance&of&messages&as&leaders&rely&on&emotional&
appeals&as&it&often&makes&us&accept&or&reject&their&message&<leaders&who&focus&on&inspirational&
goals&also&generate&greater&optimism&and&enthusiasm&in&employees,&leading&to&more&positive&
social&interactions&with&co<workers&and&customers
3*-*=#)J2&(-".6#-$#&'leaders&who&are&in&a&good&mood,&use&humor,&and&praise&employees,&
increase&positive&moods&in&the&workplace&and&they&need&to&know&the&emotional&norms&in&each&
culture&they&do&business&in&so&they&do&not&send&any&unintended&signals&or&misread&the&actions&of&
locals
!==)#22+;#&:#G*;+,)&+-&%G#&K,)A8.*$#&'negative&emotions&and&stresses&lead&to&aggressive&
behavior&in&the&workplace&(actions&that&violate&norms&and&threaten&the&well<being&of&the&
individual,&group,&and&organization
<#=,%+*%+,-&'skillfully&displayed&emotions&can&effect&negotiations&<displaying&negative&emotions&
(such&as&anger)&can&be&effective&but&unless&a&false&front&is&put&up,&emotions&can&impair&
negotiations
01,%+,-*.&F,-%*=+,-&'the&"catching"&of&emotions&from&others&which&is&important&in&
customer&service&because&it&can&alter&a&customer's&emotions
F62%,1#)&5#);+$#&'emotions&affect&service&quality&delivered&to&customer&and&hence,&affects&
customer&relationships&and&the&business&in&general& =&this&can&put&demands&on&employees&as&it&
puts&them&in&a&state&of&emotional&dissonance&effectively&resulting&in&job&burnout,&declines&in&job&
performance,&and&lower&job&satisfaction
L,E&!%%+%64#&'carrying&emotions&over&to&home&but&which&dissipate&overnight
5*"#%>&*-4&(-M6)+#2&'negative&affectivity&relates& to&increased&injuries&at&work,&suggesting&
employers&may&improve&health&and&safety&by&ensuring&workers&aren't&engaged&in&potentially&
dangerous&activities&when&they&are&in&a&bad&mood
?:&!88.+$*%+,-2&,"&01,%+,-2N3,,4&'
Moods&are&more&general&and&less&contextual&than&emotions
Emotions&and&moods&impact&all&areas&of&OB
Managers&cannot&and&should&not&attempt&to&control&the&emotions&of&their&employees&and&cannot&
ignore&the&emotions&of&their&co<workers&and&employees
Behavior&predictions&will&be&less&accurate&if&emotions&are&not&taken&into&account
5611*)>
(-%#)8#)2,-*.&F,-".+$%&'a&process&which&occurs&when&one&person,&group,&or&organization&subunit&
frustrates&the&goal&attainment&of&another
F,-".+$%&'involves&antagonistic&attitudes&and&behaviors&<attitudes&include&the&conflicting&parties&
developing&a&dislike&for&each&other,&seeing&each&other&as&unreasonable,&and&developing&negative&
stereotypes&of&their&opposites&<behaviors&include&name&calling,&sabotage,&or&even&physical&aggression
9),68&(4#-%+"+$*%+,-&*-4&(-%#)=),68&:+*2&'without&interaction&or&cohesion,&people&have&a&
tendency&to&develop&a&more&positive&view&of&their&own&"in<group"&and&a&less&positive&view&of&the&
"out<group"&of&which&they&are&not&a&member&and&the&ease&with&which&this&unwarranted&
intergroup&bias&develops&is&disturbing&<occurs&due&to&self<esteem&as&identifying&with&the&
successes&of&one's&own&group&and&disassociating&oneself&from&the&out<group&failure&boosts&self<
esteem&and&provides&comforting&feelings&of&social&solidarity&<this&increased&emphasis&on&teams&in&
organizations&places&a&high&premium&on&getting&employees&to&identify&strongly&with&their&team&
and&the&prevalence&of&intergroup&bias&suggests&that&organizations&will&have&to&pay&special&
attention&to&managing&relationships&between&these&teams
(-%#)4#8#-4#-$#&'interdependence&necessitates&interaction&between&the&parties&so&that&they&
can&coordinate&their&interests&and&it&implies&that&each&party&has&some&power&over&the&other&so&it&
will&be&relatively&easy&for&one&side&or&the&other&to&abuse&its&power&and&create&antagonism&<does&
not&always&lead&to&conflict&as&it&provides&a&good&basis&for&collaboration&through&mutual&assistance&
but&the&presence&of&other&conditions&may&lead&to&it
Power&<if&dependence&is&not&mutual,&but&one<way
!
Status&<provides&little&impetus&for&conflict&when&people&of&lower&statues&are&dependent&on&
those&of&higher&status&which&is&the&way&most&organizations&work&and&most&members&are&
socialized&to&expect&it&<but&instances&when&lower&status&individuals&find&themselves&giving&
orders&to,&or&controlling&tasks&of,&high<status&people&(e.g.&waiter&giving&orders&to&high<end&
chefs)&the&latter&might&come&to&resent&this&reversal&of&line&influence
!
Culture&<when&two&or&more&cultures&develop&in&an&organization,&the&clash&in&beliefs&and&
values&can&result&in&conflict&(e.g.&hospital&administrators&who&develop&a&strong&culture&
centered&on&efficiency&and&cost<effectiveness&vs.&physicians&who&share&a&strong&culture&
based&on&providing&excellent&patient&care&at&any&cost)
!
Due&to&Differences&In:
!1E+=6+%>&'ambitious&goals,&jurisdictions,&or&performance&criteria& where&the&formal&and&informal&
rules&that&govern&interaction&break&down&and&it&can&be&difficult&to&accurately&assign&praise&for&
good&outcomes&or&blame&for&bad&outcomes&when&it&is&hard&to&see&who&was&responsible&for&what
5$*)$#&/#2,6)$#2&'a&limited&budget,&money,&secretarial& support,&or&lab&space&contribute&to&
conflict&because&it&has&a&way&of&turning&latent&or&disguised&conflict&into&overt&conflict
F*62#2&,"&?)=*-+C*%+,-*.&F,-".+$%O
H>8#2&,"&F,-".+$%&'detrimental&to&member&satisfaction&and&team&performance&in&the&context&of&work&
groups&and&teams&and&in&essence&prevents&development&of&cohesiveness
/#.*%+,-2G+8&F,-".+$%&'interpersonal&tensions&among&individuals&that&have&to&do&with&their&relationship&
per&se,&not&the&task&at&hand&<e.g.&personality&clashes
H*2A&F,-".+$%&'disagreements&about&the&nature&of&the&work&to&be&done&<e.g.&differences&of&opinion&
about&goals&or&technical&matters&<occasionally&some&degree&of&this&might&be&beneficial&for&team&
performance,&especially& when&the&task&is&non<routine&and&requires&a&variety&of&perspectives&to&be&
considered&and&when&it&does&not&degenerate&into&relationship&conflict
7),$#22&F,-".+$%&'disagreements&about&how&work&should&be&organized&and&accomplished&<e.g.&
disagreements&about&responsibility,&authority,&resource&allocation,&and&who&should&do&what&all&
Events&that&transpire&as&a&result&of&conflict:
Winning&the&conflict&becomes&more&important&than&developing&a&good&solution&to&the&problem&at&
hand
The&parties&begin&to&conceal&information&from&each&other&or&to&pass&on&distorted&information&
Each&side&becomes&more&cohesive&and&deviants&who&speak&of&conciliation&are&punished&<strict&
conformity&is&expected
Contact&with&the&opposite&party&is&discouraged&except&under&formalized,&restricted&conditions
While&the&opposite&party&is&negatively&stereotyped,&the&image&of&one's&own&position&is&boosted
On&each&side,&more&aggressive&people&who&are&skilled&at&engaging&in&conflict&may&emerge&as&
leaders
F,-".+$%&@>-*1+$2&'what&begins&as&a&problem&of&identity,&interdependence,&ambiguity,&or&scarcity&
quickly&escalates&to&the&point&that&the&conflict&process&itself&becomes&an&additional&problem
!;,+4+-=&'characterized&by&low&assertiveness&of&one's&own&interests&and&low&cooperation&with&
the&other&party&=&short<term&stress&reduction&from&the&rigors&of&the&conflict&if&the&issue&is&trivial,&
but&if&it&is&large,&this&style&does&not&really&change&the&situation,&thus&effectiveness&is&often&limited
!$$,11,4*%+-=&'one&cooperates&with&the&other&party&while&not&asserting&one's&own&interests&<
can&be&effective&when&you&are&wrong,&the&issue&is&more&important&to&the&other&party,&or&you&want&
to&build&good&will
F,18#%+-=&'maximizes&assertiveness&for&your&own&position&and&minimizes&cooperation&
responses&<tends&to&frame&the&conflict&in&strict&win<lose&terms&and&full&priority&is&given&to&your&
own&goals,&facts,&or&procedures&<when&you&have&a&lot&of&power,&you&are&sure&of&your&facts,&the&
situation&is&truly&win<lose,&or&you&will&not&have&to&interact&with&the&other&party&in&the&future
F,18),1+2#&'combines&intermediate&levels&of&assertiveness&and&cooperation&(compromise&
between&pure&competition&and&pure&accommodation)&<an&attempt&to&satisfice&rather&than&
maximize&the&outcomes&and&hope&that&the&same&occurs&for&the&other&party&=&it&is&a&sensible&
reaction&to&conflict&stemming&from&scarce&resources&and&is&generally&a&good&fallback&if&other&
strategies&fail&<does&not&always&result&in&the&most&creative&response&and&it&is&not&so&useful&for&
resolving&conflicts&that&stem&from&power&symmetry&because&the&weaker&party&may&have&little& to&
offer&the&stronger&party
F,..*E,)*%+-=&'assertiveness&and&cooperation&are&maximized&in&the&hope&that&an&integrative&
agreement&occurs&that&fully&satisfies&the&interests&of&both&parties&where&emphasis&is&put&on&a&win<
win&resolution,&with&the&assumption&that&it&leaves&both&the&parties&in&a&better&condition&<works&
best&when&the&conflict&is&not&intense&and&when&each&party&has&information&that&is&useful&to&the&
other,&to&manage&conflict&inside&organizations,&and&particularly&important&for&providing&good&
customer&serve&=&enhances&productivity&and&achievement,&though&it&can&take&time&and&practice&to&
develop&<e.g.&companies&and&their&suppliers
3*-*=+-=&F,-".+$%&'these&approaches&are&a&function&of&both&how&assertive&you&are&in&trying&to&satisfy&
your&own&or&your&group's&concerns&and&how&cooperative&you&are&in&trying&to&satisfy&those&of&the&other&
party&or&group
An&attempt&to&either&prevent&conflict&or&resolve&existing&conflict&by&reaching&a&satisfactory&
exchange&among&or&between&the&parties&
Sometimes&negotiation&is&very&explicit&<e.g.&labor&negotiation&or&the&buyer<seller&interaction
Can&be&implicit&or&tacit&too&<when&an&employee&is&trying&to&get&a&more&interesting&job&assignment&
or&to&take&off&from&work&early,&the&terms&of&the&exchange&are&not&likely&to&be&spelled&out&very&
clearly
@+2%)+E6%+;#&<#=,%+*%+,-&'win<lose&negotiation&in&which&a&fixed&amount&of&assets&is&divided&
between&parties&where&the&parties&will&more&or&less&tend&toward&some&compromise&<essentially&
single<issue&negotiation&<e.g.&salary&negotiation
Tactics:
Threat&<implying&that&you&will&punish&the&other&party&if&he&or&she&does&not&concede&to&your&
position&<has&some&merit&if&one&party&has&power&over&the&other&that&corresponds&to&the&
nature&of&the&threat,&especially&if&no&future&negotiations&are&expected&or&if&the&threat&can&be&
posed&in&a&civil&and&subtle&way&vs.&if&power&is&more&balanced&and&the&threat&is&crude,&a&
counter&threat&could&ruin&the&negotiation,&even&though&both&parties&could&be&satisfied&in&
the&settlement&range
!
Promises&<pledges&that&concessions&will&lead&to&rewards&in&the&future&<has&merit&when&your&
side&lacks&power&and&anticipates&future&negotiations&with&the&other&side
!
Threats&and&Promises&<both&work&best&when&they&send&interpretable&signals&to&the&other&side&
about&your&true&position,&what&really&matters&to&you&with&timing&being&crucial
Firmness&vs.&Concessions&<sticking&to&your&position&and&being&uncompromising&is&likely&to&be&
reciprocated&by&the&other,&thus&increases&the&chances&of&a&deadlock&vs.&a&series&of&small&
concessions&early&in&the&negotiation&will&often&be&matched&<good&negotiators&often&use&face<
saving&techniques&to&explain&concessions
It&is&an&attempt&to&change&the&attitudes&of&the&other&party&toward&your&target&position
!
Persuaders&are&most&effective&when&they&are&perceived&as&expert,&likable,&and&unbiased
!
To&avoid&being&bias&is&to&introduce&some&unbiased&parties&
!
Persuasion&<verbal/debate&which&takes&a&two<pronged&attack&where&one&prong&asserts&the&
technical&merits&of&the&party's&position&and&the&other&prong&asserts&the&fairness&of&the&target&
position
(-%#=)*%+;#&<#=,%+*%+,-&'win<win&negotiation&that&assumes&that&mutual&problem&solving&can&
enlarge&the&assets&to&be&divided&between&parties
It&is&useful&but&sobering&to&realize&that&people&have&a&decided&bias&for&fixed<pie&thinking
Requires&a&degree&of&creativity&and&because&most&people&are&not,&and&the&stress&of&typical&
negotiation&does&not&provide&the&best&climate&for&creativity&in&any&event,&many&of&the&role&models&
that&negotiators&have&are&more&likely&to&use&distributive&than&integrative&tactics
Tactics:
Coplous&Information&Exchange&<revelation&of&both&parties'&true&interests,&not&just&their&current&
positions&<free&flow&of&information&where&we&give&away&some&non<critical&information&to&the&
other&party&to&get&the&ball&rolling,&ask&the&other&party&a&lot&of&questions,&and&listen&to&their&
responses
Framing&Differences&as&Opportunities&<preferences&differ&for&everything&from&the&timing&of&a&deal&
to&the&degree&of&risk&that&each&party&wants&to&assumes&and&these&differences&can&serve&as&a&basis&
for&integrative&agreements&because&they&contain&information&that&can&telegraph&each&party's&real&
interests
Cutting&Costs&<if&the&costs&that&the&other&party&associates&with&an&agreement,&the&chance&of&an&
integrative&settlement&increases&<e.g.&if&you&are&negotiating&with&your&boss&for&a&new,&more&
interesting&job&assignment,&but&she&does&not&like&the&idea&because&she&relies& on&your&excellent&
skills&on&your&current&assignment&<by&asking&good&questions,&you&find&out&that&she&is&ultimately&
worried&about&the&job&being&done&properly,&not&about&leaving&it&and&take&the&opportunity&to&
inform&her&that&you&have&groomed&a&subordinate&to&do&your&current&job&=&reduces&the&cost&of&her&
letting&you&assume&the&new&assignment&
Increasing&Resources&<literal& way&of&getting&around&the&fixed<pie&syndrome&and&it&works&when&the&
two&parties,&working&together,&might&have&access&to&twice&as&many&resources&as&one&party
Introducing&Superordinate&Goals&<subordinate&goals&are&attractive&outcomes&that&can&be&
achieved&only&by&collaboration&as&the&goals&probably&represent&the&best&example&of&creativity&in&
integrative&negotiation&because&they&change&the&entire&landscape&of&the&negotiation&episode
HG+)4&7*)%>&(-;,.;#1#-%&'to&intervene&between&negotiating&parties&when&the&parties&reach&an&
impasse&<in&most&cases,&this&involvement&exists&from&the&start&
Mediation&<occurs&when&a&neutral&third&party&helps&to&facilitate&a&negotiated&agreement&<
mediators&first&do&almost&anything&that&aids&the&process&or&atmosphere&of&negotiation,&can&serve&
as&a&lightning&rod&for&anger&or&try&to&introduce&humor,&try&to&help&the&parties&clarify&their&
underlying&interests,&occasionally&impose&a&deadline,&etc.&
Conventional&Arbitration&<arbitrator&can&choose&any&outcome
!
Final&Offer&Arbitration&<each&party&makes&a&final&offer&and&the&arbitrator&chooses&one&of&
them&<devised&to&motivate&the&two&parties&to&make&sensible&offers&that&have&a&chance&of&
being&upheld&and&motivate&the&agreement&by&the&fear&of&all<or<nothing&aspect&
!
Arbitration&<occurs&when&a&third&party&is&given&authority&to&dictate&the&terms&of&settlement&of&a&
conflict&and&although&disputing&parties&may&agree&to&arbitration,&it&can&also&be&mandated&formally&
by&law&or&informally&by&upper&management&or&parents&=&key&point&is&the&negotiation&has&broken&
down,&and&the&arbitrator&has&to&make&a&final&distributive&allocation
3*-*=+-=&F,-".+$%&P+%G&<#=,%+*%+,-&'a&decision<making&process&among&interdependent&parties&who&do&
not&share&identical&preferences&
(2&!..&F,-".+$%&:*4&'the&argument&that&conflict&can&be&functional&rests&mainly&on&the&idea&that&it&
promotes&necessary&organizational&change:
Reasons&Why&It&Promotes&Change:
Conflict&might&bring&into&consideration&new&ideas&that&would&not&be&offered&without&it&
In&trying&to&"one&up"&the&opponent,&one&of&the&parties&might&develop&a&unique&idea&that&the&other&
cannot&fail&to&appreciate
It&will&compel&each&party&to&monitor&the&other's&performance&very&carefully&=&the&search&for&the&
weaknesses&means&its&more&difficult&to&hide&errors&and&problems&from&the&rest&of&the&
organization&=&the&errors&and&problems&indicate&that&changes&are&necessary
Signals&the&need&for&a&redistribution&of&power
Conflict&<<>&Change&<<>&Adaptation&<<>&Survival&=&for&organizations&to&survive,&they&must&adapt&to&their&
environments&which&requires&changes&in&strategy&that&may&be&stimulated&through&conflict
When&Managers&Know&Conflict&is&Good:
When&a&"friendly&rut"&exists&in&which&peaceful&relationships&take&precedence&over&organizational&
goals
When&parties&that&should&be&interacting&closely&have&chosen&to&withdraw&from&each&other&to&
avoid&conflict
When&conflict&is&suppressed&or&downplayed&by&denying&differences,&ignoring&controversy,&and&
exaggerating&points&of&agreement
The&reasons&for&promotion&of&conflict&suggest&when&a&manager&may&use&a&strategy&of&$,-".+$%&
2%+16.*%+,- to&cause&change&<the&causes&of&conflict&can&be&manipulated&by&managers&to&achieve&change
Examples
Workplace&Discrimination
Workplace&Ostracism&
Bullying,&Humiliation,&and&Sexual&Harassment
Counterproductive&Work&Behavior&
Employee&Incivility&
Employee&Sabotage&<behavior&that&can&damage&or&disrupt&the&organization's&operations&by&
creating&delays&in&production,&damaging&property,&the&destruction&of&relationships,&or&the&
harming&of&employees&or&customers
Causes
Abusive&Supervision
Customer&Interpersonal&Injustice&(mistreatment)
Emotional&Exhaustion
Job&Insecurity
All&Employees&<job&insecurity&and&change,&role&ambiguity,&interpersonal&conflict,&work<
family&conflict
!
Boundary&Roles&<role&conflict&and&emotional&labor
!
Executives&and&Managers&<heavy,&continuing&workload&and&heavy&responsibility
!
Operative&Employees&<poor&physical&conditions&and&poor&job&design
!
Other&Stressors&&<environmental&events&or&conditions&that&have&the&potential&to&induce&stress&and&
the&individual&personality&often&determines&the&extent&to&which&a&potential&stressor&becomes&a&
real&stressor&and&actually&induces&stress
Model&of&Stress
Model&of&Stress&Episode:
!==)#22+;#&:#G*;+,)
5%)#22&'a&psychological&reaction&to&the&demands&inherent&in&a&stressor&that&has&the&potential&to&make&a&
person&feel&tense&or&anxious&<all&people&require&a&certain&level&of&stimulation&from&their&environment,&
and&moderate&levels&of&stress&can&serve&this&function&but&also&becomes&a&problem&when&it&leads&to&
especially&high&levels&of&anxiety&and&tension
D,$62&,"&F,-%),.&
Internals&believe&they&control&their&own&behavior
!
Externals&believe&their&behavior&is&controlled&by&luck,&fate&or&powerful&people
!
Set&of&beliefs&about&whether&one's&behavior&is&controlled&mainly&by&internal&or&external& forces&
Internals&are&more&likely&to&confront&stressors&directly&
!
Externals&are&more&likely&to&feel&anxious&in&the&face&of&potential&stressors&and&are&more&
prone&to&simple&anxiety&reduction&strategies&which&only&work&in&the&short<run&
!
Stress&reactions&<the&behavioral,&psychological,&and&physiological&consequences&of&stress&out&of&
which&some&are&passive&responses&over&which&the&individual&has&little&direct&control&(e.g.&elevated&
blood&pressure&or&a&reduced&immune&function)&and&others&are&active&attempts&to&cope&with&it
Report&heavier&workloads,&longer&working&hours,&and&more&conflicting&work&demands&(all&
which&are&potent&stressors)
!
Encounter&more&stressful&situations&than&Type&B's&do&or&perceive&themselves&as&doing&so&
!
Are&likely&to&exhibit&adverse&physiological&reactions&in&response&to&stress&<e.g.&elevated&
blood&pressure,&elevated&heart&rate,&and&modified&blood&chemistry
!
Frustrating,&difficult,&or&competitive&events&are&especially&likely&to&prompt&these&adverse&
reactions
!
Have&a&strong&need&to&control&their&work&environment&=&a&full<time&task&that&stimulates&
their&feelings&of&time&urgency&and&leads&them&to&overextend&themselves&physically
!
H>8#&!&:#G*;+,)&'display&personality&pattern&that&includes&aggressiveness,&ambitiousness,&
competitiveness,&hostility,&preoccupied&with&their&own&work,&impatience,&and&a&sense&of&urgency
<#=*%+;#&!""#$%+;+%>&'propensity&to&view&the&world,&including&oneself&and&others,&in&a&negative&
light&<it&is&a&stable&personality&trait&that&is&a&major&component&of&the&"Big&Five"&personality&
dimension&neuroticism&=&they&tend&to&be&pessimistic&and&downbeat
Factors&Responsible&for&Susceptibility&to&Stress:
A&predisposition&to&perceive&stressors&in&the&workplace
Hypersensitive&to&existing&stressors&
A&tendency&to&gravitate&to&stressful&jobs&and&provoke&stress
Use&passive,&indirect&coping&styles&that&avoid&the&real&sources&of&stress
7#)2,-*.+%>&*-4&5%)#22
5%)#22,)2&+-&?)=*-+C*%+,-*.&D+"#&'workplace&stressors&are&the&most&common&source&of&stress
/,.#&?;#).,*4&'the&requirement&for&too&many&tasks&to&be&performed&in&too&short&a&time&period&<
the&open<ended&nature&of&the&managerial&job&is&partly&responsible&for&this&heavy&and&protracted&
workload&as&management&is&an&ongoing&process,&an&there&are&few&signposts&to&signify&that&a&task&
is&complete&and&that&rest&and&relaxation&are&permitted&=&provoking&stress&and&preventing&the&
manager&from&enjoying&the&pleasures&of&life&that&can&reduce&stress
Q#*;>&/#28,-2+E+.+%>&'the&workload&is&heavy&and&can&have&extremely&important&consequences&
for&the&organization&and&its&members&as&personal&consequences&of&an&incorrect&decision&are&at&
stake&<their&influence&over&the&future&of&others&has&the&potential&to&induce&stress&<e.g.&
terminating&operations&of&unprofitable&divisions&=&employee&terminations&=&experiencing&guilt&
and&tension
0R#$6%+;#&*-4&3*-*=#)+*.&5%)#22,)2&'executives&and&managers&make&key&organizational&decisions&and&
direct&the&work&of&others&which&is&why&in&these&roles,&they&experience& some&special&forms&of&stress
7,,)&7G>2+$*.&K,)A+-=&F,-4+%+,-2&'more&likely&to&be&exposed&to&physically&unpleasant&and&even&
dangerous&working&conditions&
7,,)&L,E&@#2+=-&'at&any&organizational&level,&but&especially&victimizing&at&lower<level&blue<and<
white<collar&jobs&=&monotony&and&boredom&can&prove&extremely& frustrating&to&people&who&feel&
capable&of&handling&more&complex&tasks
?8#)*%+;#'D#;#.&5%)#22,)2&'operatives&are&individuals&who&occupy&non<professional&and&non<
managerial&positions&in&organizations
:,6-4*)>&/,.#&5%)#22,)2
Another&form&of&role&conflict&where&one's&role&as&an&organizational&member&might&be&
incompatible&with&the&demands&made&by&the&public&or&other&organizations
Much&of&this&stress&stems&from&the&frequent&need&for&such&employees&to&engage&in&#1,%+,-*.&
.*E,)S regulating&oneself&to&suppress&negative&emotions&or&to&exaggerate&positive&ones
The&form&of&stress&particularly&experienced& is&burnout
:,6-4*)>&/,.#2&'positions&which&organizational&members&are&required&to&interact&with&members&of&
other&organizations&or&with&the&public&which&are&especially&likely&to&experience&stress&as&they&straddle&
the&imaginary&boundary&between&the&organization&and&its&environment&<e.g.&sales&reps
:6)-&?6%&'a&syndrome&made&up&of&emotional&exhaustion,&cynicism,&and&low&self<efficacy&<most&
common&among&people&who&entered&their&jobs&with&especially& high&ideals&whose&expectations&of&being&
able&to&"change&the&world"&are&frustrated&when&they&encounter&unappreciative&clients&<e.g.&teachers,&
nurses,&paramedics,&social&workers,&and&police&are&especially&likely&candidates
Symptoms:
Exhaustion&<person&feels&fatigued,&drained,&frustrated,&and&distance&themselves&from&their&clients
Cynicism&<to&deal&with&the&exhaustion&<extreme&scenario&involves&depersonalizing&clients,&
treating&them&like&objects,&and&lacking&concern&for&their&problems
Self<Efficacy&<develops&feelings&of&low&self<efficacy&and&low&personal&accomplishment
Consequences:
Brave&individuals&pursue&new&occupations&while&experiencing&guilt&about&not&having&been&able&to&
cope&in&the&old&one
Others&stay&in&the&same&occupation,&but&seek&a&new&job
Some&pursue&administrative&careers&in&their&profession&in&the&attempt&to&"climb&above"&the&
source&of&their&difficulties
Some&stay&in&their&jobs,&just&collect&their&paycheques&but&do&little&to&contribute&to&the&mission&of&
the&organizations&<e.g.&good&bureaucrats&choose&this&route
K,)A&0-=*=#1#-%&'a&positive&work<related&state&of&mind&that&is&characterized& by&vigor&(high&levels&of&
energy&and&mental&resilience& at&work),&dedication&(strongly&involved&in&your&work&and&experiencing& a&
sense&of&significance,&enthusiasm,&and&challenge),&and&absorption&(fully&concentrated&on&and&engrossed&
in&your&work)
Central&assumption&is&that&high&job&resources&foster&work&engagement&while&high&job&demands&
exhaust&employees&physically&and&mentally&=&burnout
L,E&@#1*-42&'physical,&psychological,&social,&or&organizational&features&of&a&job&that&require&
sustained&physical&or&psychological&effort&=&physiological&or&psychological&costs&<e.g.&work&
overload,&time&pressure,&role&ambiguity,&and&role&conflict
L,E&/#2,6)$#2&'features&of&a&job&that&are&functional&to&help&achieve&work&goals,&reduce&job&
demands,&and&stimulate&personal&growth,&learning,&and&development&<can&come&from&the&
organization&(e.g.&pay,&career&opportunities,&job&security),&interpersonal&and&social&relations,&the&
organization&of&work,&and&the&task&itself
L,E&@#1*-42'/#2,6)$#2&3,4#.&'organizations&should&strive&to&foster&extreme&engagement&and&
enthusiasm&for&the&job&and&it&can&be&determined&if&employees&tend&towards&this&or&burnout&in&this&
model&where&the&work&environment&can&be&described&in&terms&of&demands&and&resources
9#-#)*.&5%)#22,)2
While&we&can&choose&our&friends&outside&work,&that&cannot&is&not&an&option&at&work&
Potent&source&of&stress&and&negative&well<being&<physically&and&through&psychological&
aggression&and&intimidation&as&well
!
There&is&some&degree&of&power&or&status&imbalance&between&the&bully&and&the&victim
!
3,EE+-=&'closely&associated&with&bullying&and&occurs&when&a&number&of&individuals&"gang&
up"&on&a&particular&employee&<can&be&especially& intimidating&and&stressful&because&it&
restricts&the&availability&of&social&support&that&might&be&present&when&there&is&only&a&single&
bully
!
Manifestation&of&this&conflict&is&workplace&E6..>+-=;&repeated&(persistence) negative&behavior&
directed&toward&one&or&more&individuals&of&lower&power&or&status&that&creates&a&hostile&work&
environment
Victims&of&bullying&and&mobbing&experience&feel&powerless&to&deal&with&the&perpetrator(s)
(-%#)8#)2,-*.&F,-".+$%&'potent&stressor&especially&for&those&with&strong&avoidance&tendencies
The&increase&in&the&number&of&households&in&which&both&parents&work&and&the&increase&in&the&
number&of&single<parent&families&=&stressors&centered&around&childcare
Increased&life&spans&=&people&in&the&prime&of&their&careers&find&themselves&providing&support&for&
elderly&parents&=&feelings&of&guilt&about&the&need&to&tend&to&matters&to&work&increase
Women&are&particularly&victimized&by&stress&due&to&this&conflict
Occupations&that&require&a&high&degree&of&teamwork&or&responsibilities&for&others&tend&to&provoke&
this&conflict&the&most
K,)A'B*1+.>&F,-".+$%&'occurs&when&either&work&duties&interfere&with&family&life&or&family&life&interferes&
with&work&responsibilities
Trend&toward&mergers&and&acquisitions,&re<engineering,&restructuring,&and&downsizing&=&
increasingly&high&levels&of&stress&among&employees&who&have&lost&their&jobs&or&have&to&live&with&
the&threat&of&more&layoffs
Includes&reducing&executive&positions&to&reduce&total&management&payroll&due&to&pressures&for&
corporate&performance
L,E&(-2#$6)+%>&*-4&FG*-=#&'secure&employment&is&an&important&goal&for&almost&everyone&and&when&
that&is&threatened&=&encountering&stress
/,.#&!1E+=6+%>&'exists&when&the&goals&of&one's&job&or&the&methods&of&performing&the&job&are&unclear&<
the&lack&of&direction&=&stress&especially&for&people&who&are&low&in&their&tolerance&for&such&ambiguity
Negative&effects&include&decreased&morale,&job&satisfaction,&organizational&commitment,&job&
performance,&increased&absenteeism,&turnover,&and&job&loss
The&psychological&and&physical&well<being&of&the&harassment&victims&is&effected&=&depression,&
frustration,&nervousness,&fatigue,&nausea,&hypertension,&and&symptoms&of&posttraumatic&stress&
disorder
Most&likely&to&be&a&problem&in&organizations&that&have&a&climate&that&is&tolerant&of&sexual&
harassment&and&where&women&are&working&in&traditionally&male<dominated&jobs&and&in&a&male<
dominated&workplace
5#R6*.&Q*)*221#-%&'widespread&in&the&public&and&private&sectors&where&victims&are&subjected&to&
ongoing&harassment&and&stress
7),E.#1&5,.;+-=&'directed&toward&terminating&the&stressor&or&reducing&its&potency&(most&
effective&reaction&as&it&is&generally&the&routine,&sensible,&obvious&approach&that&an&objective&
observer&might&suggest)&through&time&management,&delegation,&talking&it&out,&searching&for&
alternatives,&etc.&
5##A+-=&5,$+*.&5688,)%&'having&close&ties&with&other&people&<the&close&ties&can&bolster&self<
esteem,&provide&useful&information,&offer&comfort&and&humor,&or&even&provide&material&
resources&(e.g.&loan)&<people&with&stronger&social&networks&are&likely&to&cope&more&
positively&with&stressful&events&and&exhibit&better&psychological&and&physical&well<being&(co<
workers&and&superiors&being&the&best&sources&of&support&for&work<related&issues)
Hindrance&Stressor&<damage&goal&attainment&and&performance&e.g.&role&ambiguity&
and&interpersonal&conflict
Challenging&Stressor&<can&damage&performance,&but&can&also&sometimes&stimulate&it&
via&added&motivation&<e.g.&heavy&workload&and&responsibility
7#)",)1*-$#&FG*-=#2&'stress&or&stressors&cause&reduced&job&performances
Absence&<dysfunctional&reaction&to&stress&for&both&the&individual&and&the&organization&
as&it&is&an&attempting&short<term&reduction&of&the&anxiety&prompted&by&the&stressor
Turnover&<can&be&dysfunctional&unless&it&leads&to&a&new&job&that&is&less&stressful
K+%G4)*P*.&'basic&reaction&expressed&through&absence&or&turnover
T2#&,"&!44+$%+;#&56E2%*-$#2&'least&satisfactory&response&as&it&fails&to&terminate&stress&
episodes&and&leaves&employees&less&physically&and&mentally&prepared&to&perform&their&
jobs&<e.g.&smoking,&drinking,&drug&use,&etc.&
:#G*;+,)*.&'overt&activities&that&the&stressed&individual&uses&in&an&attempt&to&cope&with&the&stress
/*%+,-*.+C*%+,-&'attributing&socially&acceptable&reasons&or&motives&to&one's&action&to&
make&them&seem&reasonable&and&sensible,&at&least&to&oneself&<becoming&angry&and&
abusive&but&justifying&it&by&claiming&discrimination&against&yourself
7),M#$%+,-&'attributing&ones&own&undesirable&ideas&and&motives&to&others&so&that&
they&seem&less&negative&<debating&on&giving&a&bribe&and&reason&that&the&place&is&
corrupt&so&its&okay&to&do&it
@+28.*$#1#-%&'directing&feelings&of&anger&at&a&safe&target&rather&than&expressing&
them&where&they&may&be&punished&<playing&basketball&after&a&hard&day&of&work
/#*$%+,-&B,)1*%+,-&'expressing&oneself&in&a&manner&that&is&directly&opposite&to&the&
way&one&truly&feels,&rather&than&risking&negative&reactions&to&one’s&true&position&<e.g.&
going&with&the&majority
F,18#-2*%+,-&'applying&one’s&skills&in&a&particular&area&to&make&up&for&failure&in&
another&area&<professor&who&fails&to&get&his/her&research&published&decides&to&
become&a&teacher
@#"#-2#&3#$G*-+212&'psychological&attempts&to&reduce&the&anxiety&associated&with&
stress&<does&not&actually&confront&or&deal&with&the&stressor&<usually&useful&to&both&the&
individual&and&the&organization
72>$G,.,=+$*.&'involve&the&emotions&and&thought&processes&to&reduce&the&anxiety&associated&with&
stress
7G>2+,.,=+$*.&'negative&effect&(burnout)&on&cardiovascular&system&<e.g.&blood&pressure,&
cholesterol,&pulse,&etc.
5%)#22&/#*$%+,-2
Examples&of&Resources
Physical&<muscle&strength
Financial&<income&and&assets
Social&<social&support
Cognitive&<knowledge
Motivational&<self&efficacy&and&commitment
F,-2#);*%+,-&,"&/#2,6)$#&HG#,)>&'a&motivational&stress&theory&that&focuses&on&how&certain&stressors&
can&affect&people's&cognitive&and&emotional&attitude&and&behavior&<begins&with&the&tenet&that&
individuals&strive&to&obtain,&protect&and&foster&valued&resources&and&minimize&any&threats&of&resource&
loss
Job&Redesign&<reduces&the&stressful&characteristics& of&jobs&involving&enriching&operative<level&jobs&
to&make&them&more&stimulating&and&challenging&<providing&more&autonomy&helps&alleviate&stress&
and&burnout&in&service&jobs
Some&firms&have&distributed&social&support&newsletters,&developed&support&groups&for&
employees&dealing&with&eldercare& problems&or&even&contracted&specialized&consultants&to&
provide&seminars&on&eldercare&issues
!
Flexibility& policies&including&flex<time,&telecommuting,&job&sharing,&and&family&leave&policies&
=&time&off&for&caring&for&infants,&sick&children,&and&aged&dependents
!
"Family<Friendly"&Human&Resource&Policies&<include&combinations&of&formalized&social&support,&
material&support,&and&increased&flexibility& to&adapt&to&employee&needs
Exact&content&of&the&programs&varies&but&it&must&involve&meditation,&training&in&muscle<
relaxation&exercises,&biofeedback&training&to&control&physiological&processes,&training&in&
time&management,&and&training&to&think&more&positively&and&realistically&about&sources&of&
job&stress
!
Stress<Management&Programs&<some&help&physically&and&mentally&healthy&employees&prevent&
problems&due&to&stress&and&others&are&therapeutic&in&nature,&aimed&at&individuals&who&are&already&
experiencing& stress&problem
Work<life&Balance,&Fitness,&and&Wellness&Programs&<variety&of&leisure&activities&combined&with&a&
healthy&diet&and&physical&exercise&<become&a&strategic&retention&tool&for&organizations&where&by&
providing&them,&they&can&increase&commitment&and&reduce&turnover
?:&5%)*%#=+#2&",)&3*-*=+-=&5%)#22&'strategies&that&either&reduce&demands&on&employees&or&enhance&
their&resources
Emotion,(Stress(and(Aggressive(Behavior
Monday,&17&October&2016
12:08&pm
!""#$%&'defined&as&a&broad&range&of&feelings&that&people&experience&in&the&form&of&emotions&or&moods
Emotions&are&information
Decisions&must&incorporate&emotions&to&be&effective
Emotions&must&follow&logical&patterns
Functions:
())*%+,-*.&'expressing&emotions&publically&may&be&damaging&to&social&status
/*%+,-*.&'emotions&are&critical& to&rational&decision<making&and&help&us&understand&the&world&
around&us
Emotions&are&information&and&decisions&must&incorporate&them&to&be&effective&since&emotions&
follow&logical&patterns
01,%+,-2&'caused&by&a&specific&event,&very&brief&in&duration&(seconds&or&minutes),&specific&and&
numerous&in&nature,&usually&accompanied&by&distinct&facial&expressions&and&action&oriented&in&nature&<
ignored&in&OB&as&it&was&believed&that&emotions&are&disruptive&in&the&workplace,&when&in&reality&they&
cannot&be&separated&from&the&workplace&<
3,,4&'cause&is&often&general&and&unclear,&lasts&longer&than&emotions&(hours&or&days),&more&general&
(two&main&dimensions&<positive&affect&and&negative&affect&<comprised&of&multiple&specific&emotions),&
generally&not&indicated&by&distinct&expressions,&and&cognitive&in&nature
5,6)$#2&,"&01,%+,-2&'personality,&time&of&the&day,&day&of&the&week,&social&activities,&sleep,&exercise,&
stress,&age,&etc.&
Remember&positive&information
Evaluate&objects,&people,&and&events&more&positively
Overestimate&the&likelihood&that&good&events&will&occur
Underestimate&the&occurrence&of&bad&events&
Adopt&simplified,&shortcut&decision<making&strategies,&more&likely&violating&the&rational&
model&
Make&more&creative,&intuitive&decisions
7#,8.#&+-&*&9,,4&3,,4&'
Remember&negative&information&
Evaluate&objects,&people,&and&events&more&negatively&
Overestimate&the&likelihood&that&bad&events&will&occur
Underestimate&the&occurrence&of&good&events&
Adopt&a&more&deliberate,&systematic,&detailed&decision<making&strategy
7#,8.#&+-&*&:*4&3,,4&'
7,2+%+;#&!""#$%&'a&mood&dimension&consisting&of&positive&emotions&such&as&excitement,&self<
assurance,&and&cheerfulness&at&the&high&end,&and&boredom,&sluggishness,&and&tiredness&at&the&low&
end
<#=*%+;#&!""#$%&'a&mood&dimension&consisting&of&nervousness,&stress,&and&anxiety&at&the&high&end&
and&relaxation,&tranquility,&and&poise&at&the&low&end
7,2+%+;+%>&?""2#%&'at&zero&input&(when&nothing&particular&is&going&on),&most&individuals&experience&
a&mildly&positive&mood
(18*$%&,"&01,%+,-2&,-&@#$+2+,-&3*A+-=&'
B6-$%+,-2&,"&01,%+,-2&'previous&observations&have&suggested&that&rationality&and&emotion&are&in&
conflict,&and&that&if&you&exhibit&emotion&you&are&likely&to&act&irrationally&or&displaying&emotions&is&so&
toxic&to&a&career&that&people&experiencing&them&should&leave&the&room&than&allow&others&to&witness&it&<
research&is&increasingly&showing&that&&we&must&have&the&ability&to&experience& emotions&in&order&to&be&
rational&because&our&emotions&provide&important&information&about&how&we&understand&the&world&
around&us
01,%+,-*.&@+22,-*-$#&'when&employees&have&to&project&one&emotion&while&simultaneously&
feeling&another,&which&can&be&very&damaging&and&lead&to&exhaustion&or&burning&out
B#.%&01,%+,-&'when&the&felt&emotion&is&the&individual's&actual&emotions
@+28.*>#4&01,%+,-&'those&emotions&that&the&organization&requires&workers&to&show&or&
considers&appropriate&<they&are&learned
56)"*$#&!$%+-=&'hiding&inner&feelings&and&forgoing&emotional&expressions&in&response&to&
display&rules&<deals&with&displayed&emotions&=&more&stressful&and&exhausting&to&employees&
so&it&is&important&to&give&those&employees&a&chance&to&relax&and&recharge
@##8&!$%+-=&'trying&to&modify&our&true&inner&feelings&based&on&display&rules&<deals&with&felt&
emotions
01,%+,-2&+-&?)=*-+C*%+,-2&
01,%+,-*.&D*E,)&'an&employee's&expression&of&organizationally&desired&emotions&during&interpersonal&
transactions&at&work
Cases&For:
(-%6+%+;#&!88#*.&'intuition&suggests&people&who&can&detect&emotions&in&others,&control&their&own&
emotions,&and&handle&social&interactions&well&have&a&powerful&advantage&in&the&business&world
7)#4+$%2&F)+%#)+*&%G*%&3*%%#)2&'EI&correlates&with&moderately&with&job&performance
(%&+2&:+,.,=+$*..>&:*2#4&'EI&is&neurologically&based&in&a&way&that&is&unrelated&to&standard&measures&
of&intelligence&and&it&is&genetically&influenced,&further&supporting&the&idea&that&it&measures&a&real&
underlying&biological&factor
Cases&Against:
H,,&I*=6#&*&F,-$#8%&'it&has&become&so&broad&and&the&components&so&variegated&that&it&is&no&
longer&even&an&intelligible& concept
F*-J%&:#&3#*26)#4&'it&is&argued&that&because&EI&is&a&form&of&intelligence,& there&must&be&right&or&
wrong&answers&for&it&on&tests&and&although&some&tests&do,&the&validity&of&some&questions&is&
doubtful&<the&measures&are&diverse&and&researchers&have&not&subjected&them&to&as&much&
rigorous&study&as&they&have&measures&of&personality&and&general&intelligence
I*.+4+%>&,"&0(&+2&5628#$%&'there&is&not&much&research&on&whether&EI&adds&insight&beyond&measures&
of&personality&and&general&intelligence&in&predicting&job&performance&
01,%+,-*.&(-%#..+=#-$#&'a&person's&ability&to&be&self<aware&(recognize&one's&own&emotions),&detect&
emotions&in&others,&and&manage&emotional&cues&and&information&<plays&an&important&role&in&job&
performance&but&not&wholly&accepted
5#.#$%+,-&'emotional&intelligence& should&be&a&hiring&factor,&especially&for&jobs&with&a&high&degree&
of&social&interaction
@#$+2+,-&3*A+-=&'positive&emotions&can&lead&to&better&decisions&as&people&who&are&in&positive&
moods&or&experiencing&positive&emotions&are&more&likely&than&others&to&use&heuristics,&or&rules&of&
thumb&to&help&make&good&decisions&quickly
F)#*%+;+%>&'positive&mood&increases&flexibility,&openness,&and&creativity&and&produce&more&ideas&
and&options&rather&than&negative&moods&<all&the&activating&moods&(positive&or&negative)&seem&to&
lead&to&more&creativity&
3,%+;*%+,-&'positive&mood&affects&expectations&of&success&and&feedback&can&amplify&this&effect&<
a&cycle&can&exist&in&which&positive&moods&cause&people&to&be&more&creative,&leading&to&positive&
feedback,&reinforcing&the&positive&mood&and&may&make&performance&better,&and&so&on
D#*4#)2G+8&'emotions&are&important&to&acceptance&of&messages&as&leaders&rely&on&emotional&
appeals&as&it&often&makes&us&accept&or&reject&their&message&<leaders&who&focus&on&inspirational&
goals&also&generate&greater&optimism&and&enthusiasm&in&employees,&leading&to&more&positive&
social&interactions&with&co<workers&and&customers
3*-*=#)J2&(-".6#-$#&'leaders&who&are&in&a&good&mood,&use&humor,&and&praise&employees,&
increase&positive&moods&in&the&workplace&and&they&need&to&know&the&emotional&norms&in&each&
culture&they&do&business&in&so&they&do&not&send&any&unintended&signals&or&misread&the&actions&of&
locals
!==)#22+;#&:#G*;+,)&+-&%G#&K,)A8.*$#&'negative&emotions&and&stresses&lead&to&aggressive&
behavior&in&the&workplace&(actions&that&violate&norms&and&threaten&the&well<being&of&the&
individual,&group,&and&organization
<#=,%+*%+,-&'skillfully&displayed&emotions&can&effect&negotiations&<displaying&negative&emotions&
(such&as&anger)&can&be&effective&but&unless&a&false&front&is&put&up,&emotions&can&impair&
negotiations
01,%+,-*.&F,-%*=+,-&'the&"catching"&of&emotions&from&others&which&is&important&in&
customer&service&because&it&can&alter&a&customer's&emotions
F62%,1#)&5#);+$#&'emotions&affect&service&quality&delivered&to&customer&and&hence,&affects&
customer&relationships&and&the&business&in&general& =&this&can&put&demands&on&employees&as&it&
puts&them&in&a&state&of&emotional&dissonance&effectively&resulting&in&job&burnout,&declines&in&job&
performance,&and&lower&job&satisfaction
L,E&!%%+%64#&'carrying&emotions&over&to&home&but&which&dissipate&overnight
5*"#%>&*-4&(-M6)+#2&'negative&affectivity&relates& to&increased&injuries&at&work,&suggesting&
employers&may&improve&health&and&safety&by&ensuring&workers&aren't&engaged&in&potentially&
dangerous&activities&when&they&are&in&a&bad&mood
?:&!88.+$*%+,-2&,"&01,%+,-2N3,,4&'
Moods&are&more&general&and&less&contextual&than&emotions
Emotions&and&moods&impact&all&areas&of&OB
Managers&cannot&and&should&not&attempt&to&control&the&emotions&of&their&employees&and&cannot&
ignore&the&emotions&of&their&co<workers&and&employees
Behavior&predictions&will&be&less&accurate&if&emotions&are&not&taken&into&account
5611*)>
(-%#)8#)2,-*.&F,-".+$%&'a&process&which&occurs&when&one&person,&group,&or&organization&subunit&
frustrates&the&goal&attainment&of&another
F,-".+$%&'involves&antagonistic&attitudes&and&behaviors&<attitudes&include&the&conflicting&parties&
developing&a&dislike&for&each&other,&seeing&each&other&as&unreasonable,&and&developing&negative&
stereotypes&of&their&opposites&<behaviors&include&name&calling,&sabotage,&or&even&physical&aggression
9),68&(4#-%+"+$*%+,-&*-4&(-%#)=),68&:+*2&'without&interaction&or&cohesion,&people&have&a&
tendency&to&develop&a&more&positive&view&of&their&own&"in<group"&and&a&less&positive&view&of&the&
"out<group"&of&which&they&are&not&a&member&and&the&ease&with&which&this&unwarranted&
intergroup&bias&develops&is&disturbing&<occurs&due&to&self<esteem&as&identifying&with&the&
successes&of&one's&own&group&and&disassociating&oneself&from&the&out<group&failure&boosts&self<
esteem&and&provides&comforting&feelings&of&social&solidarity&<this&increased&emphasis&on&teams&in&
organizations&places&a&high&premium&on&getting&employees&to&identify&strongly&with&their&team&
and&the&prevalence&of&intergroup&bias&suggests&that&organizations&will&have&to&pay&special&
attention&to&managing&relationships&between&these&teams
(-%#)4#8#-4#-$#&'interdependence&necessitates&interaction&between&the&parties&so&that&they&
can&coordinate&their&interests&and&it&implies&that&each&party&has&some&power&over&the&other&so&it&
will&be&relatively&easy&for&one&side&or&the&other&to&abuse&its&power&and&create&antagonism&<does&
not&always&lead&to&conflict&as&it&provides&a&good&basis&for&collaboration&through&mutual&assistance&
but&the&presence&of&other&conditions&may&lead&to&it
Power&<if&dependence&is&not&mutual,&but&one<way
!
Status&<provides&little&impetus&for&conflict&when&people&of&lower&statues&are&dependent&on&
those&of&higher&status&which&is&the&way&most&organizations&work&and&most&members&are&
socialized&to&expect&it&<but&instances&when&lower&status&individuals&find&themselves&giving&
orders&to,&or&controlling&tasks&of,&high<status&people&(e.g.&waiter&giving&orders&to&high<end&
chefs)&the&latter&might&come&to&resent&this&reversal&of&line&influence
!
Culture&<when&two&or&more&cultures&develop&in&an&organization,&the&clash&in&beliefs&and&
values&can&result&in&conflict&(e.g.&hospital&administrators&who&develop&a&strong&culture&
centered&on&efficiency&and&cost<effectiveness&vs.&physicians&who&share&a&strong&culture&
based&on&providing&excellent&patient&care&at&any&cost)
!
Due&to&Differences&In:
!1E+=6+%>&'ambitious&goals,&jurisdictions,&or&performance&criteria& where&the&formal&and&informal&
rules&that&govern&interaction&break&down&and&it&can&be&difficult&to&accurately&assign&praise&for&
good&outcomes&or&blame&for&bad&outcomes&when&it&is&hard&to&see&who&was&responsible&for&what
5$*)$#&/#2,6)$#2&'a&limited&budget,&money,&secretarial& support,&or&lab&space&contribute&to&
conflict&because&it&has&a&way&of&turning&latent&or&disguised&conflict&into&overt&conflict
F*62#2&,"&?)=*-+C*%+,-*.&F,-".+$%O
H>8#2&,"&F,-".+$%&'detrimental&to&member&satisfaction&and&team&performance&in&the&context&of&work&
groups&and&teams&and&in&essence&prevents&development&of&cohesiveness
/#.*%+,-2G+8&F,-".+$%&'interpersonal&tensions&among&individuals&that&have&to&do&with&their&relationship&
per&se,&not&the&task&at&hand&<e.g.&personality&clashes
H*2A&F,-".+$%&'disagreements&about&the&nature&of&the&work&to&be&done&<e.g.&differences&of&opinion&
about&goals&or&technical&matters&<occasionally&some&degree&of&this&might&be&beneficial&for&team&
performance,&especially& when&the&task&is&non<routine&and&requires&a&variety&of&perspectives&to&be&
considered&and&when&it&does&not&degenerate&into&relationship&conflict
7),$#22&F,-".+$%&'disagreements&about&how&work&should&be&organized&and&accomplished&<e.g.&
disagreements&about&responsibility,&authority,&resource&allocation,&and&who&should&do&what&all&
Events&that&transpire&as&a&result&of&conflict:
Winning&the&conflict&becomes&more&important&than&developing&a&good&solution&to&the&problem&at&
hand
The&parties&begin&to&conceal&information&from&each&other&or&to&pass&on&distorted&information&
Each&side&becomes&more&cohesive&and&deviants&who&speak&of&conciliation&are&punished&<strict&
conformity&is&expected
Contact&with&the&opposite&party&is&discouraged&except&under&formalized,&restricted&conditions
While&the&opposite&party&is&negatively&stereotyped,&the&image&of&one's&own&position&is&boosted
On&each&side,&more&aggressive&people&who&are&skilled&at&engaging&in&conflict&may&emerge&as&
leaders
F,-".+$%&@>-*1+$2&'what&begins&as&a&problem&of&identity,&interdependence,&ambiguity,&or&scarcity&
quickly&escalates&to&the&point&that&the&conflict&process&itself&becomes&an&additional&problem
!;,+4+-=&'characterized&by&low&assertiveness&of&one's&own&interests&and&low&cooperation&with&
the&other&party&=&short<term&stress&reduction&from&the&rigors&of&the&conflict&if&the&issue&is&trivial,&
but&if&it&is&large,&this&style&does&not&really&change&the&situation,&thus&effectiveness&is&often&limited
!$$,11,4*%+-=&'one&cooperates&with&the&other&party&while&not&asserting&one's&own&interests&<
can&be&effective&when&you&are&wrong,&the&issue&is&more&important&to&the&other&party,&or&you&want&
to&build&good&will
F,18#%+-=&'maximizes&assertiveness&for&your&own&position&and&minimizes&cooperation&
responses&<tends&to&frame&the&conflict&in&strict&win<lose&terms&and&full&priority&is&given&to&your&
own&goals,&facts,&or&procedures&<when&you&have&a&lot&of&power,&you&are&sure&of&your&facts,&the&
situation&is&truly&win<lose,&or&you&will&not&have&to&interact&with&the&other&party&in&the&future
F,18),1+2#&'combines&intermediate&levels&of&assertiveness&and&cooperation&(compromise&
between&pure&competition&and&pure&accommodation)&<an&attempt&to&satisfice&rather&than&
maximize&the&outcomes&and&hope&that&the&same&occurs&for&the&other&party&=&it&is&a&sensible&
reaction&to&conflict&stemming&from&scarce&resources&and&is&generally&a&good&fallback&if&other&
strategies&fail&<does&not&always&result&in&the&most&creative&response&and&it&is&not&so&useful&for&
resolving&conflicts&that&stem&from&power&symmetry&because&the&weaker&party&may&have&little& to&
offer&the&stronger&party
F,..*E,)*%+-=&'assertiveness&and&cooperation&are&maximized&in&the&hope&that&an&integrative&
agreement&occurs&that&fully&satisfies&the&interests&of&both&parties&where&emphasis&is&put&on&a&win<
win&resolution,&with&the&assumption&that&it&leaves&both&the&parties&in&a&better&condition&<works&
best&when&the&conflict&is&not&intense&and&when&each&party&has&information&that&is&useful&to&the&
other,&to&manage&conflict&inside&organizations,&and&particularly&important&for&providing&good&
customer&serve&=&enhances&productivity&and&achievement,&though&it&can&take&time&and&practice&to&
develop&<e.g.&companies&and&their&suppliers
3*-*=+-=&F,-".+$%&'these&approaches&are&a&function&of&both&how&assertive&you&are&in&trying&to&satisfy&
your&own&or&your&group's&concerns&and&how&cooperative&you&are&in&trying&to&satisfy&those&of&the&other&
party&or&group
An&attempt&to&either&prevent&conflict&or&resolve&existing&conflict&by&reaching&a&satisfactory&
exchange&among&or&between&the&parties&
Sometimes&negotiation&is&very&explicit&<e.g.&labor&negotiation&or&the&buyer<seller&interaction
Can&be&implicit&or&tacit&too&<when&an&employee&is&trying&to&get&a&more&interesting&job&assignment&
or&to&take&off&from&work&early,&the&terms&of&the&exchange&are&not&likely&to&be&spelled&out&very&
clearly
@+2%)+E6%+;#&<#=,%+*%+,-&'win<lose&negotiation&in&which&a&fixed&amount&of&assets&is&divided&
between&parties&where&the&parties&will&more&or&less&tend&toward&some&compromise&<essentially&
single<issue&negotiation&<e.g.&salary&negotiation
Tactics:
Threat&<implying&that&you&will&punish&the&other&party&if&he&or&she&does&not&concede&to&your&
position&<has&some&merit&if&one&party&has&power&over&the&other&that&corresponds&to&the&
nature&of&the&threat,&especially&if&no&future&negotiations&are&expected&or&if&the&threat&can&be&
posed&in&a&civil&and&subtle&way&vs.&if&power&is&more&balanced&and&the&threat&is&crude,&a&
counter&threat&could&ruin&the&negotiation,&even&though&both&parties&could&be&satisfied&in&
the&settlement&range
!
Promises&<pledges&that&concessions&will&lead&to&rewards&in&the&future&<has&merit&when&your&
side&lacks&power&and&anticipates&future&negotiations&with&the&other&side
!
Threats&and&Promises&<both&work&best&when&they&send&interpretable&signals&to&the&other&side&
about&your&true&position,&what&really&matters&to&you&with&timing&being&crucial
Firmness&vs.&Concessions&<sticking&to&your&position&and&being&uncompromising&is&likely&to&be&
reciprocated&by&the&other,&thus&increases&the&chances&of&a&deadlock&vs.&a&series&of&small&
concessions&early&in&the&negotiation&will&often&be&matched&<good&negotiators&often&use&face<
saving&techniques&to&explain&concessions
It&is&an&attempt&to&change&the&attitudes&of&the&other&party&toward&your&target&position
!
Persuaders&are&most&effective&when&they&are&perceived&as&expert,&likable,&and&unbiased
!
To&avoid&being&bias&is&to&introduce&some&unbiased&parties&
!
Persuasion&<verbal/debate&which&takes&a&two<pronged&attack&where&one&prong&asserts&the&
technical&merits&of&the&party's&position&and&the&other&prong&asserts&the&fairness&of&the&target&
position
(-%#=)*%+;#&<#=,%+*%+,-&'win<win&negotiation&that&assumes&that&mutual&problem&solving&can&
enlarge&the&assets&to&be&divided&between&parties
It&is&useful&but&sobering&to&realize&that&people&have&a&decided&bias&for&fixed<pie&thinking
Requires&a&degree&of&creativity&and&because&most&people&are&not,&and&the&stress&of&typical&
negotiation&does&not&provide&the&best&climate&for&creativity&in&any&event,&many&of&the&role&models&
that&negotiators&have&are&more&likely&to&use&distributive&than&integrative&tactics
Tactics:
Coplous&Information&Exchange&<revelation&of&both&parties'&true&interests,&not&just&their&current&
positions&<free&flow&of&information&where&we&give&away&some&non<critical&information&to&the&
other&party&to&get&the&ball&rolling,&ask&the&other&party&a&lot&of&questions,&and&listen&to&their&
responses
Framing&Differences&as&Opportunities&<preferences&differ&for&everything&from&the&timing&of&a&deal&
to&the&degree&of&risk&that&each&party&wants&to&assumes&and&these&differences&can&serve&as&a&basis&
for&integrative&agreements&because&they&contain&information&that&can&telegraph&each&party's&real&
interests
Cutting&Costs&<if&the&costs&that&the&other&party&associates&with&an&agreement,&the&chance&of&an&
integrative&settlement&increases&<e.g.&if&you&are&negotiating&with&your&boss&for&a&new,&more&
interesting&job&assignment,&but&she&does&not&like&the&idea&because&she&relies& on&your&excellent&
skills&on&your&current&assignment&<by&asking&good&questions,&you&find&out&that&she&is&ultimately&
worried&about&the&job&being&done&properly,&not&about&leaving&it&and&take&the&opportunity&to&