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Lecture 6

MGCR 222 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Reinforcement, Social Perception, Trait Theory

Management Core
Course Code
MGCR 222
Alfred Jaeger

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MGCR 222 Introduction to Organizational Behavior
22 January 2018
Courier cats, case study.
Example question: “what big five personality trait is best applicable to the problem in the case?
o Openness to experience software is something new, so people don’t really want to use it
“use conscientiousness to explain this problem”
o People don’t want to use the effort to learn the new software and spends more time than usual to
learn how to use the software; employees are low on conscientiousness because people high on
conscientiousness put in the energy to learn
Self-esteem: employees believe that they would never believe they would ever learn how to use the
Using operant learning theory:
o Positive reinforcement: about wanting them to learn how to use the new program more
o To reduce the probability of behavior:
Punishment: “if you use old program, you get punished; will have to do report again on
new program”
Extinction: have to think about what is supporting using the old program (existence of the
old program); remove the reinforcement reinforcing the behavior
Using observational learning:
o Put someone that knows how to use the program next to someone that doesn’t know how to use
the new program
o Self-esteem as a personality trait
o Self-efficacy as a belief about the ability
Self-efficacy directed toward being able to use the new software
Mastery: Give people easy tasks using the new program, which would increase self-
Chapter 3. Perception, Attribution, and Diversity.
Perception: process by which you interpret what you see around you
o Three components:
The perceiver: the person that is interpreting reality
Past experiences: perceiver develops expectations that affect current perceptions
Needs: people have different needs at different times in their lives
o Ex. Might influence the compliment you receive from someone
o If you receive a compliment from someone and are in need of love, you
might think that that person has a crush on you
o Telling a joke; if a friend is in a good mood, a racist joke might be
funny, but if in a bad mood, the same joke might be offensive
Perceptual defense: tendency for perceptual system to defend perceiver against
unpleasant emotions
o To not feel bad, people will “see what they want to see” and “hear what
they want to hear”
o Our perceptual system works to make sure we do not see or hear things
that are threatening
o Ex. defending a choice of significant other if someone says that the
relationship is not a good one
o Perceptual defense happens when there is a change in perception, to
protect perceiver from feeling bad
The target: the target being interpreted
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