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Lecture 3

MGCR 222 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Eye Contact, Sign Language, Interpersonal CommunicationPremium

5 pages53 viewsFall 2015

Department
Management Core
Course Code
MGCR 222
Professor
Jean- Nicolas Reyt
Lecture
3

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MCGR222Lecture3Verbal&NonVerbalCommunication
1. Communication
a. Definition
Comes from latin verb communicare 'to make common to many'
When you communicate, you share your knowledge and ideas
The sharing of meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues
b. Why should we care?
Communication is at the core of our modern organizational life
Technology has sped up the pace of work
Work is more complex than ever before
Employees are likely to be distributed geographically
Knowledge and info are key to success
Technology has transformed the way people do their job
2. Communication models
a. Shannon and Weaver's (1949) linear communication model
Conceptualizes communication as a one-way process (or a linear process in which the
speaker speaks and the listener listens
Model includes noise or interference that distorts understanding bw the speaker and
the listener
Elements
Sender: the originator of message
Encoder: transmitter which converts the message into signals
Decoder: the reception place of the signal which converts signals into message
Receiver: destination of the message from sender
Noise: communication disruption during transfer
Example. An author writing a book. Sender= author, encoder= computer/typewrite,
decoder=eyes/brain of reader, receiver: reader, noise: vocabulary of book, reader
misunderstanding
Main strength of the model:
Good descriptions of one-way communication (ex. Newspapers, smoke signal)
Main weakness of the model:
Depicts communication as a one-way process where speakers only speak and
never listen
Also implies that listeners listen and never speak
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b) Schramm's (1955) interactive communication model
Includes feedback from the receiver to the sender
Both the speaker and listener take turns to speak and listen to each other
Same components as linear model with 2 additional elements
Two way process
Feedback (verbal or nonverbal)
Main strength of model:
Closer to human communication
Main weakness of model:
Model doesn’t take into account simultaneous communication
Model fails to show that communication is a dynamic process which changes
over time (ex. A common experience)
c) Barnlund's (1970) transactional communication model
Model proposes that communicators are simultaneously engaging in the sending and
receiving of messages
Communication depends on communicators fields of experience (ex. Background,
knowledge)
Ex. How well people know each other
'transactional' means that communication is a changing process
3. Communication Channels/Features
a. Copresence: users are near each other, and can point at object in common ground
b. Visibility: users can see each other, allows gestures, facial expressions
c. Audibility: users can hear each other, and use natural language
d. Co-temporality: users can expect to receive a timely reply; interruptions or delays are
significant
Ex. Email
e. Simultaneity: users can send and receive at the same time
Ex. Conversation, phone call
f. Sequentiality: user contributions are strictly ordered, and cannot get out of order
Walkie-talkie, email
g. Reviewability: users can look at past history of the convo:
Not face to face, email
h. Revisability: users have the option of editing their contributions before they commit
to them
Not face to face, email
Media Richness Theory
Framework by Daft and Lengel (1984) that describes a communications medium by its
ability to reproduce the info that is sent over it
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