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MGCR 222 (78)


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McGill University
Management Core
MGCR 222
Patricia Hewlin

Ch8: FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR DEFINING & CLASSIFYING GROUPS  Definition o 2 or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives  Formal vs Informal o Formal group  Definition  Group defined by the org’s structure, with designed work assignments establishing tasks  Organizational goals  Command group  Determined by the org chart  Individuals reporting to a given managers  Task group  Individuals working together to complete a job task  Boundaries not limited to hierarchical superior  Cross command relations  All command groups = task groups o BUT necessarily the other way around o Informal group  Definition  Neither formally structured nor organizationally determined  Natural formations in the work environment  Need for social contact  Interest group  Affiliation of ppl to attain a specific objective with which each individual is concerned  Friendship group  Individuals having 1 or more common characteristics  Reasons to join groups o Security  Reduce the insecurity of “standing alone” o Status  Inclusion in a group viewed as important by others  Recognition & status for members o Self esteem  Self worth o Affiliation  Fulfillment of social needs o Power  Power in number o Goal achievement  Formal group STATUS OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT  The 5 Stage Model o Forming  Great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose/structure/leadership  Complete if members think as members o Storming  Accept the existence of the group  BUT individuality  Intragroup conflict over leadership  Complete if relative hierarchical level of leadership o Norming  Group cohesiveness  Strong sense of camaraderie & group identity  Complete if common set of expectations o Performing  Structure fully functional & accepted  Getting to know each other  task o Adjourning  Preparation for disbanding  Wrapping up activities GROUP PROPERTIES: ROLES, NORMS, STATUS, SIZE & COHESIVENESS  Roles o “All the world’s a stage and all the men and women merely players” (Shakespeare) o Role perception  Our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation o Role expectations  The way others believe you should act in a given context o Role conflict  When compliance with one role requirement may make it difficult to comply with another  Norms o Definition  Acceptable standards of behaviors shared by individuals  What they ought and ought not to do o ≠ types  Performance norm  How hard members should work  What the level of output should be  How to get the job done  Appearance norm  Dress code  Unspoken rules about when to look busy  Social arrangement norm  Friendship to form or not in the workplace  With whom to have lunch  Resource allocation norm  Assignment of difficult jobs  Distribution like pay or equipment o Hawthorne studies  A worker’s behavior and sentiments: closely related  ++ significant group influence  Group standards  effective individual worker output o Conformity  Reference groups  Important groups to which individuals belong to or hope to  Asch studies o Deviant workplace behavior  Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility  Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms  Threatens the well-being of the org  Status o Definition  Significant motivator  Major csq when individuals perceive a disparity btw status perception and status expectations o 3 sources  The power a person
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