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4-Theories of Motivation.pdf

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McGill University
Management Core
MGCR 222
Jim Fraser

Motivation 04 February 2013 16:37 - Motivation:Process that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward teaching the goal. The internal and external forces that lead to an individual to work toward a goal. ○ Theory X: Negative -> Employeesdislike work -> Must be controlled to achieve goals ○ Theory Y: Positive -> Employeeslike work -> Self Control and committedto objectives. ○ Intrinsic Motivators-> internal desire to do something-> interest, challenge, personal satisfaction ○ Extrinsic Motivators-> external factors -> pay, bonuses, tangible rewards - How do needs motivatepeople? All needs theories of motivationpropose a similar idea, that when individuals have needs that are unsatisfied it will result in motivation. - Are there other ways to motivatepeople? Processtheories focus on how someonecan motivateanother person. These include expectancy theory and goal setting theory. - Do equity and fairness matter? Individuals look for fairness in the reward system and they should be related to inputs from employees. - Debate: Do motivationtheories benefit employeesor just improveproductivity. - B.F. Skinner suggested behaviour is influenced if it is reinforced or not. Needs Theories 04 February 2013 19:04 • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: ○ Physiological:Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex ○ Safety: Security from physical/emotionalharm ○ Social : Affection, acceptance, friendship ○ Esteem:Internal-> Self-respects, autonomyand achievement;External -> status, recognition and attention. ○ Self-actualization-> Growth to achieve one's potential i.e. self-fulfilment.  As each need is satisfied the next need becomesmore important to fulfil. To motivate you must know where one is on this hierarchy. • ERG Theory (Alderfer) : A revised hierarchy theory that emphasizes the core needs of existence (physiological and safety), relatedness(interpersonalrelationships/socialand esteem)and growth(personaldevelopment/self-actualization). ○ More than one need at the same time ○ If higher level need is stifled, lower level needs increase ○ Education, background and culture alter group of needs for an individual. • McClelland's theory of needs: ○ Need for achievement:Drive to excel and succeed. ○ Need for power: Make others behave in a way they wouldn't have otherwise ○ Need for affiliation: Desire for friendly/closeinterpersonal relationships • Motivation-HygieneTheory (Herzberg) ○ Motivators:Factors leading to job satisfaction  Achievement  Recognition  Work itself  Responsibility  Growth ○ Hygiene: Factors that lead to job dissatisfaction.  Company policy/admin  Supervision  In
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