04 February 2013 16:37
- Motivation:Process that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of
effort toward teaching the goal. The internal and external forces that lead to an individual to
work toward a goal.
○ Theory X: Negative -> Employeesdislike work -> Must be controlled to achieve goals
○ Theory Y: Positive -> Employeeslike work -> Self Control and committedto objectives.
○ Intrinsic Motivators-> internal desire to do something-> interest, challenge, personal
○ Extrinsic Motivators-> external factors -> pay, bonuses, tangible rewards
- How do needs motivatepeople? All needs theories of motivationpropose a similar idea, that
when individuals have needs that are unsatisfied it will result in motivation.
- Are there other ways to motivatepeople? Processtheories focus on how someonecan
motivateanother person. These include expectancy theory and goal setting theory.
- Do equity and fairness matter? Individuals look for fairness in the reward system and they
should be related to inputs from employees.
- Debate: Do motivationtheories benefit employeesor just improveproductivity.
- B.F. Skinner suggested behaviour is influenced if it is reinforced or not. Needs Theories
04 February 2013 19:04
• Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:
○ Physiological:Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex
○ Safety: Security from physical/emotionalharm
○ Social : Affection, acceptance, friendship
○ Esteem:Internal-> Self-respects, autonomyand achievement;External -> status, recognition
○ Self-actualization-> Growth to achieve one's potential i.e. self-fulfilment.
As each need is satisfied the next need becomesmore important to fulfil. To motivate
you must know where one is on this hierarchy.
• ERG Theory (Alderfer) : A revised hierarchy theory that emphasizes the core needs of existence
(physiological and safety), relatedness(interpersonalrelationships/socialand esteem)and
○ More than one need at the same time
○ If higher level need is stifled, lower level needs increase
○ Education, background and culture alter group of needs for an individual.
• McClelland's theory of needs:
○ Need for achievement:Drive to excel and succeed.
○ Need for power: Make others behave in a way they wouldn't have otherwise
○ Need for affiliation: Desire for friendly/closeinterpersonal relationships
• Motivation-HygieneTheory (Herzberg)
○ Motivators:Factors leading to job satisfaction
○ Hygiene: Factors that lead to job dissatisfaction.