Class Notes (836,580)
Canada (509,856)
MGCR 222 (78)
Lecture

MGCR 222 Lectures.docx

11 Pages
146 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Management Core
Course
MGCR 222
Professor
Ruthanne Huising
Semester
Fall

Description
MGCR 222 - Intro to Organizational Behavior January 9, 2012 Lecture 1 - organizational behavior - study of what people do in a social unit which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a set of goals - organizations could be: - long term project team - student org - publicly traded and privately held - NGOs - government, hospitals, universities - field of study ground in sock, anthro, social psych, poli sci, and econ - studying regularities in individual and group bx in an organizational context - study of social action, not individual psych Topics - background: History of Orgs and Management - Individual success: team work, comm, negotiation, decision making, and influence - managing: how to motivate others through culture, structure, and rewards - enabling career success by understanding individual and group bx in org settings Goals - enable you to: - analyze action in organizations, - impression management - name it, understand why you do it - abstract away from the situation - and articulate what is happening - requires understanding of patterns of social action, not individual psych - differences in status or power: - parking spots, invading personal space, clothing, attitude - conflicting goals among employees: - radio - inefficient features of the office: - printing, fax machine, general structure of the office - network of actors: - coworkers are friends, collect knowledge - video - the office January 16, 2012 Lecture 2 AHistory of Organizations and Management - bureaucracy - often has negative associations, but is only negative in certain environments Organizational Structure - the design of the organization - a formal representation, usually pictorial - statement about: a) division of labour (jobs) -“Species of Organizations” - mechanistic --> organic KeyAspects - division of labor: - specialists: extensive experience and knowledge of small number of tasks/ activities - mass-produced; heart surgeons for children - generalist: responsible for an array of tasks that demand a variety of skills and knowledge - GP, those responsible for making an entire garment Organizational Structure - Hierarchy - unity of command - 1 superior - report to one person, who reports to one person - chain of command - who gives the order to whom? - span of control - the number of people a manager supervises - number of subordinates managed - small span - expensive, vertical comm hard, tight supervision, less autonomy - larger span - empowers workers, speeds up decisions - Formalization: - high - rules, protocols, operating procedures are to be followed - dangerous jobs - low - reliance on discretion, emerging routines - tasks are defined extensively, no strict rules Mechanistic Organization - Frederick Taylor: Father of Sci Management - wanted to redesign orgs to be as efficient as possible - time work, do it cheaper - Infiltrates all aspects of lives - separate the planning and design of work from its execution - “You are not supposed to think. There are other people paid for thinking around here.” - Work should be designed to eliminate any wasted motion, effort, and second - workers = machines - if managers do a good job, any worker can be inserted into job (McDonalds) - eliminate any type of waste - no talking, no smiling - military-like - used time and motion studies - increased production - deskilled and alienated workers - quality and innovation problems - influenced Henry Ford - fastest typist ever, man carried 300x the amount of iron, assembly line - anyone recruited for unions were fired, troublemakers were fired, no talking, no bathroom - before assembly line: needed a lot of managers to watch over the workers - after assembly line: the machine monitored working, unchanging, higher wages, US workers - very high formality Max Weber - concerned about the social consequences of modern bureaucracies - routinized, standardized, repetitive society - impeding creativity, actualization, social relations - despite this, bureaucracies were “the way” until late 1950s - sociologists tried to optimize bureaucracies - how many levels? etc. - bureaucracy can protect workers because of the chain of command, all rules stated; cheap goods Mechanistic Organic High Specialization Highly Unpredictable Rigid Departmentalization Innovation/ Exploration Clear chain of command Decentralized Narrow spans of control Wide spans of control Centralization Free Flow of info Formalization Cross- hierarchical teams “Open systems” - the rlshp btwn the env and internal functioning of a system Contingency Theory - Organization made up of subsystems - consider relationships btwn: - technical, social, strategic - Organization’s context is important: competitors, costumers, ec conditions, suppliers, regulations - How should the org be organized? - Organizations must balance internal needs and continuously adapt to the env - orgs designed in relation to task and env - managers continuously trying to align org within these conditions - under what conditions would mechanistic orgs work? - specialized jobs - clear, vertical chain of command - narrow spans of control - high formalization - consistency, need compliant workforce, stable env, straightforward task, standardized product Organic - Ideo - unstable env, ambiguous task, equal division of labour, owner - project manager - group - little hierarchy, very informal Matrix Org - combo of organic and mechanistic - like mechanistic, but people are hired into a function and report to at least 2 people - project managers, finance, marketing, design Disorganization Man - Jim Clark, founder of Silicon Graphics - adhocracy initially - Ed McCracken - new prof manager hired by investor - bureaucracy - video - ideo, very open, no leader January 23, 2012 Lecture 3 Teams - types - becoming a member - stages of development Employment Relationship - explicit and implicit agreement between employees and employers regarding social and economic issues - issues of pay - bonuses, when, how much - promotions - expectations about output - performance - what is fair? what is valid? (behavior) - after WWII, econ was booming - govt programs - after HS, take job at large firm, keep job for life - base pay, no bonuses - wages kept up with inflation - firms would train in firm-specific skills - firm ladder - pension in retirement - 1980s - shift in employment contract - white collar workers and managers were fired - blue collar workers were laid off - hired young peope who didn’t expect long term relationship - no real wage increase - no firm specific skills - which theory accounts for this type of relationship? contingency theory - contingency theory - firms organize in relation to the environment - improvements in comm tech - why teams? - sequential manner with new products - R&D -> engineering -> production -> marketing -> sales - no longer sequential, now circular all interacting: product manager -> market -> sales -> finance -> design -> R&D -> production -> product manager -> market, etc. - matrix organization - clients would come in and receive five different experts - instead, now have a team of people who are generalists and would take experts with them during meetings Why More Teams - performance - flexibility - expertise Types of Teams - problem solving - hospitals; ongoing problem solving team where they deal with issues as they arise - self-managed - no manager - cross-functional - peers, people have different expertises - virtual - teams working in geographically different locations through the computer (even if all in same building) - skunkworks - teams that are focused on big projects - merging, tech Work Group or Work Team? - group: share info, make decisions, reinforce expectations, report proress on work - limited interdependence - limited responsibility for others’work - individual goals - solely the sum of its parts - no interdepedence - team: committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable - interdependence - share responsibility for performance - complementary skills - common goal Teams Develop Through Stages - pregroup, forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning - changing individual into a team member - video - restauranteer choosing team for new restaurant Forming - uncertainty - group’s purpose, membership, structure, leadership - members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group Storming - can be uncomfortable - “get on board” - strengths vs. weaknesses, complement one another, use skills/knowledge, gaps to be filled - “what’s my role here?” “who is in charge and who does what?” - normal for people to drop out of groups - disorganized - any team will go through this process - how to manage, shorten, etc. - intragroup conflict - members resist the contraints that the group imposes on individuality - when this stage is complete, roles and a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership will emerge within the group - role expectations - how others believe a person should act in a given situation - role conflict - you have multiple roles and complying with one role makes it more difficult to comply with another - inconsistent bx requirements across ones’roles - conflicting demands for one person - role ambiguity - a person is unclear about his or her role - people haven’t gotten their role - will not be a good member of the team b/c they are not clear what to do - role overload/ underload - too much/ too little is expected of someone - expectation is too high, too low - overload - ppl feel like they have to do everything - do a bad job, other ppl have small role - underload - person doesn’t learn how to work on a team, guilt - someone has to take the lead regarding who does what, schedule, how to comm, how decisions will be made, acquiring resources, how to resolve conflict - must be done upfront or there will be issues - effective teams manage and reduce conflict by focusing on facts - try to get rid of private issues; bond over task Managing Conflict in the Team - do not seek to eliminate conflict - some amt of conflict is necessary for the health of the team - lack of conflict is not contentment - need to manage the way in which conflict emerges and is dealt with - effective teams have minimal interpersonal conflict - confl
More Less

Related notes for MGCR 222

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit