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Management Core
MGCR 222
Ruthanne Huising

MGCR 222 - Intro to Organizational Behavior January 9, 2012 Lecture 1 - organizational behavior - study of what people do in a social unit which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a set of goals - organizations could be: - long term project team - student org - publicly traded and privately held - NGOs - government, hospitals, universities - field of study ground in sock, anthro, social psych, poli sci, and econ - studying regularities in individual and group bx in an organizational context - study of social action, not individual psych Topics - background: History of Orgs and Management - Individual success: team work, comm, negotiation, decision making, and influence - managing: how to motivate others through culture, structure, and rewards - enabling career success by understanding individual and group bx in org settings Goals - enable you to: - analyze action in organizations, - impression management - name it, understand why you do it - abstract away from the situation - and articulate what is happening - requires understanding of patterns of social action, not individual psych - differences in status or power: - parking spots, invading personal space, clothing, attitude - conflicting goals among employees: - radio - inefficient features of the office: - printing, fax machine, general structure of the office - network of actors: - coworkers are friends, collect knowledge - video - the office January 16, 2012 Lecture 2 AHistory of Organizations and Management - bureaucracy - often has negative associations, but is only negative in certain environments Organizational Structure - the design of the organization - a formal representation, usually pictorial - statement about: a) division of labour (jobs) -“Species of Organizations” - mechanistic --> organic KeyAspects - division of labor: - specialists: extensive experience and knowledge of small number of tasks/ activities - mass-produced; heart surgeons for children - generalist: responsible for an array of tasks that demand a variety of skills and knowledge - GP, those responsible for making an entire garment Organizational Structure - Hierarchy - unity of command - 1 superior - report to one person, who reports to one person - chain of command - who gives the order to whom? - span of control - the number of people a manager supervises - number of subordinates managed - small span - expensive, vertical comm hard, tight supervision, less autonomy - larger span - empowers workers, speeds up decisions - Formalization: - high - rules, protocols, operating procedures are to be followed - dangerous jobs - low - reliance on discretion, emerging routines - tasks are defined extensively, no strict rules Mechanistic Organization - Frederick Taylor: Father of Sci Management - wanted to redesign orgs to be as efficient as possible - time work, do it cheaper - Infiltrates all aspects of lives - separate the planning and design of work from its execution - “You are not supposed to think. There are other people paid for thinking around here.” - Work should be designed to eliminate any wasted motion, effort, and second - workers = machines - if managers do a good job, any worker can be inserted into job (McDonalds) - eliminate any type of waste - no talking, no smiling - military-like - used time and motion studies - increased production - deskilled and alienated workers - quality and innovation problems - influenced Henry Ford - fastest typist ever, man carried 300x the amount of iron, assembly line - anyone recruited for unions were fired, troublemakers were fired, no talking, no bathroom - before assembly line: needed a lot of managers to watch over the workers - after assembly line: the machine monitored working, unchanging, higher wages, US workers - very high formality Max Weber - concerned about the social consequences of modern bureaucracies - routinized, standardized, repetitive society - impeding creativity, actualization, social relations - despite this, bureaucracies were “the way” until late 1950s - sociologists tried to optimize bureaucracies - how many levels? etc. - bureaucracy can protect workers because of the chain of command, all rules stated; cheap goods Mechanistic Organic High Specialization Highly Unpredictable Rigid Departmentalization Innovation/ Exploration Clear chain of command Decentralized Narrow spans of control Wide spans of control Centralization Free Flow of info Formalization Cross- hierarchical teams “Open systems” - the rlshp btwn the env and internal functioning of a system Contingency Theory - Organization made up of subsystems - consider relationships btwn: - technical, social, strategic - Organization’s context is important: competitors, costumers, ec conditions, suppliers, regulations - How should the org be organized? - Organizations must balance internal needs and continuously adapt to the env - orgs designed in relation to task and env - managers continuously trying to align org within these conditions - under what conditions would mechanistic orgs work? - specialized jobs - clear, vertical chain of command - narrow spans of control - high formalization - consistency, need compliant workforce, stable env, straightforward task, standardized product Organic - Ideo - unstable env, ambiguous task, equal division of labour, owner - project manager - group - little hierarchy, very informal Matrix Org - combo of organic and mechanistic - like mechanistic, but people are hired into a function and report to at least 2 people - project managers, finance, marketing, design Disorganization Man - Jim Clark, founder of Silicon Graphics - adhocracy initially - Ed McCracken - new prof manager hired by investor - bureaucracy - video - ideo, very open, no leader January 23, 2012 Lecture 3 Teams - types - becoming a member - stages of development Employment Relationship - explicit and implicit agreement between employees and employers regarding social and economic issues - issues of pay - bonuses, when, how much - promotions - expectations about output - performance - what is fair? what is valid? (behavior) - after WWII, econ was booming - govt programs - after HS, take job at large firm, keep job for life - base pay, no bonuses - wages kept up with inflation - firms would train in firm-specific skills - firm ladder - pension in retirement - 1980s - shift in employment contract - white collar workers and managers were fired - blue collar workers were laid off - hired young peope who didn’t expect long term relationship - no real wage increase - no firm specific skills - which theory accounts for this type of relationship? contingency theory - contingency theory - firms organize in relation to the environment - improvements in comm tech - why teams? - sequential manner with new products - R&D -> engineering -> production -> marketing -> sales - no longer sequential, now circular all interacting: product manager -> market -> sales -> finance -> design -> R&D -> production -> product manager -> market, etc. - matrix organization - clients would come in and receive five different experts - instead, now have a team of people who are generalists and would take experts with them during meetings Why More Teams - performance - flexibility - expertise Types of Teams - problem solving - hospitals; ongoing problem solving team where they deal with issues as they arise - self-managed - no manager - cross-functional - peers, people have different expertises - virtual - teams working in geographically different locations through the computer (even if all in same building) - skunkworks - teams that are focused on big projects - merging, tech Work Group or Work Team? - group: share info, make decisions, reinforce expectations, report proress on work - limited interdependence - limited responsibility for others’work - individual goals - solely the sum of its parts - no interdepedence - team: committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable - interdependence - share responsibility for performance - complementary skills - common goal Teams Develop Through Stages - pregroup, forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning - changing individual into a team member - video - restauranteer choosing team for new restaurant Forming - uncertainty - group’s purpose, membership, structure, leadership - members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group Storming - can be uncomfortable - “get on board” - strengths vs. weaknesses, complement one another, use skills/knowledge, gaps to be filled - “what’s my role here?” “who is in charge and who does what?” - normal for people to drop out of groups - disorganized - any team will go through this process - how to manage, shorten, etc. - intragroup conflict - members resist the contraints that the group imposes on individuality - when this stage is complete, roles and a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership will emerge within the group - role expectations - how others believe a person should act in a given situation - role conflict - you have multiple roles and complying with one role makes it more difficult to comply with another - inconsistent bx requirements across ones’roles - conflicting demands for one person - role ambiguity - a person is unclear about his or her role - people haven’t gotten their role - will not be a good member of the team b/c they are not clear what to do - role overload/ underload - too much/ too little is expected of someone - expectation is too high, too low - overload - ppl feel like they have to do everything - do a bad job, other ppl have small role - underload - person doesn’t learn how to work on a team, guilt - someone has to take the lead regarding who does what, schedule, how to comm, how decisions will be made, acquiring resources, how to resolve conflict - must be done upfront or there will be issues - effective teams manage and reduce conflict by focusing on facts - try to get rid of private issues; bond over task Managing Conflict in the Team - do not seek to eliminate conflict - some amt of conflict is necessary for the health of the team - lack of conflict is not contentment - need to manage the way in which conflict emerges and is dealt with - effective teams have minimal interpersonal conflict - confl
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