Chapter 9: Understanding Software for Managers
- basics of software
o hardware -- > operating system -- > applications -- > users
o flexible --- gives customizations options to managers
- operating system: provides a common set of controls for managing
computer hardware, making it easier for users to interact with computers
and for programmers to write application software.
- User interface: items like scroll bars and menus are displayed on the
hardware of the computer display (what you see)
- Operating systems give programmers a common set of commands to
consistently interact with the hardware
- Good OS and software can catalyze network effects (Eg apple apps)
- Firmware: control programs stored on chips -- > smaller, special-purpose
computing devices EG OS in an iPod, mobile phone, or TV box
- Embedded system: special software designed and included in physical
products. Often stored as firmware too.
- Moore’s Law enables embedded systems
- Platform: operating systems create a platform so that programmers can
write additional applications. EG iPhone, Wii, windows.
- Application software: performs the work that users and firms are directly
interested in accomplishing --- the more application software that is available
for a platform (eg more apps for your phone), the more valuable it
- Deskto.p software: applications installed on a personal computer.
- Enterprise software: applications that address the needs of multiple,
simultaneous users in an organization or work group. EG keeping track of
inventoy, record sales..
- Software package: a software product offered commercially by a third part
to support functions.
o Enterprise resource planning (ERP): a software package that
interacts the many functions (accounting, finance, etc) of a business.
o Some leading ones SAP and Oracle
o Some other categoreies:
Customer relationship management: used to support
customer-related sales and marketing activities
Supply chain management: systems that an help a firm
manage aspect of its value chain.
Business intelligence systems: use data created by other
systems to provide reporting and analysis for organizational
- Most ERP work in conjunction with database management system: stores
and retrieves the data than an application creates and uses.
o (think of it above the operating system, but under the enterprise
o very efficient for a company - but ERP systems can also have very costly consequences for a company if
their installation or implementation is botched