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Lecture 2

MIMM 214 Lecture 2: MIMM 214 – Lecture 2 – Claire Trottier – Overview of immune system

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Microbiology and Immun (Sci)
MIMM 214
Claire Trottier

MIMM 214 – Lecture 2 – Claire Trottier – Overview of immune system • Major players: tissues of immune system o Collection of organs that coordinately work to prevent infection o Bone marrow, thymus, lymphatics, lymph nodes o Immune cells travel in body and occupy diff tissues over time o Immune cells derive from progenitors in bone marrow o Some cells further mature in thymus to t cells o Immune cells congregate in lymphoid tissues • Primary (central) o Lymphoid organs are where lymphocytes are made ▪ Bone marrow, thymus • 2ndary (peripheral) ▪ Where lymphocytes are activated • Lymph nodes, spleen, mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (malt) • Key cells o Innate immunity has macrophage and dendritic cell o Adaptive immunity has cd4 t cell, cd8, b cell, differentiated plasma b cell o Bone marrow acts as a progenitor • Cells of immune system o Leukocytes or white blood cells o Originate in bone marrow o 2 main lineages ▪ Lymphoid: includes lymphocytes (b and t) and NK cells o Myeloid: includes all other leukocytes o From there they go to reside to tissues and organs or circulate in the blood or in lymphatic system • Lymphocytes and specificity o T and b cells are responsible for adaptive immunity o Generate responses that are highly specific o Specificity is determined by expression of receptors on cell surface o B cells- b cell receptor (BCR) ▪ Can be bound to membrane or secreted as antibodies o T cells – t cell receptor (TCR) ▪ Membrane bound • Dendritic cells are key bride in immune system o Involved in detecting infection o Activate adaptive immunity • Molecules in immune system o key ▪ secreted proteins ▪ recetpors on cell surface ▪ intracellular signlaing molecules and transcription factors ▪ antigen o molecules can function to communicate (b/e cells or inside cells) or mediate interactions between cells o these molecules trigger changes in target cells (e.g activation, signaling, migration, transcription, cellular differentiation) • key molecule types o secreted proteins ▪ cells communicate with e/o through cytokines and chemokines (cytokines specialised in cell attraction) o receptors on cell surface ▪ cytokines and chemokines bind to target cells vi
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