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april 2 2012- dr. geary.docx

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McGill University
Microbiology and Immun (Sci)
MIMM 413

ndMonday April 2 2012Infectious Diseases There are more parasites than any other kind of animals Hosts restrict many kinds of parasites There are 200 or so malaria species and about 4 infect people Why Most hosts restrict most parasites there is a counter filter We do not intercept with the parasites we do not come into counter with it The other is that we prevent the encounter with the disease The compatibility filter is that although we could be infected with some parasites they do not take There could be a receptor missing a nutrient missing or the innate immune system is good at killing itDrugs and vaccines do not prevent the infection per se but they prevent the infection from being more successful Parasite chemotherapy We really only have prophylactic drugs with malaria It does not prevent infection it prevents success of infection Principles of Chemotherapy Before you can talk about which drug helps for which parasite you need to have a feel for the drug mechanism itselfIntrinsic potency in a perfect world how potent is this drug against an animal In drugs concentrations are given as mass per unit volume But doses are given as mass per unit mass When something is very potent it means that it kills at a low doseIt is easier to kill bacteria than parasites because parasites are eukaryotes Therapeutic index is the dose that is effective vs the dose that is toxic In bacteria it is diagnosisbasis treatment With parasites it is mass treatment they do not diagnose In this case the drug must be really safe If you are sick you can tolerate a little bit of risk to be cured But if you are not sick and do not have the parasite you get the pill anyways So it must be really safeSpectrum we are consumerdriven medical treatment societies We do not want to wait for diagnosis we want the pill now You want one pill that kills every bacteria known to man This is the same with parasites we want treatments that can be administered without diagnosis at the species level Resistance whenever you put pressure on a population you will develop resistance 2 People spend a lot of time studying mechanism of action A lot of anticancer drugs act at the level of DNA Some of the action of drugs is called nonspecific
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