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MUAR 211 Lecture Notes - Syphilis, Strophic Form, Song Cycle

Music-Arts Faculty
Course Code
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

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MUAR 211 The Art of Listening Winter 2013
February 21st, 2013
the Romantic era (19th century) was a cultural movement emphasizing emotion,
imagination & individualism
based partially on reaction against balance & restraint of Classical art & music
basic quality: emotion subjectivity
important emphasis on nature as source of inspiration
romantic characteristics in music
o nationalism desire to intentionally create and/or celebrate own national
identity within artistic creations
o exoticism desire to intentionally create and/or celebrate a foreign
national identity within artistic creations
o program music instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea,
scene or something extra-musical; non-musical association usually
identified by title and/or explanatory notes within concert program
o chromatic harmony use of chords & pitches that don’t function normally
within diatonic tonal system of major & minor keys; use of chromatic
harmony creates heightened emotional or evocative effect while also
loosening aural sense of key & tonic
increasing wealth & political power among middle class = more public music
making, large-scale instrumental concerts, public opera houses, formation of
community & professional orchestra, musical societies & subscription concert series
salons: semi-private gatherings in home of upper-middle & aristocratic classes;
venue for various artistic activities & also for philosophical debate & political
lied/lieder/art song: genre of monody (song) composed for solo voice with piano
o musical setting of a high-quality poem
o popularity due to the large presence of piano in society
strophic form: each poetic verse/stanza is set to the same, repeating music
modified strophic form: some of the poem’s verses are set to the same music, but
there are other parts of the music that differ, most often at the end of the song
through composed: music of the song is composed all the way through the piece &
therefore contains no repeated sections; no 2 stanzas are set exactly alike
song cycle: a collection of Lieder that are published together as a set & share other
unifying characteristics not every collection of art songs is a cycle
o shared musical characteristics
related pattern of keys between songs
reappearance of musical motives in more than one song in the cycle
o shared extra-musical characteristics
poems by same poet that may have been published together as cycle
of poems
poems that are related by subject matter or that tell a unified story
MUAR 211 The Art of Listening Winter 2013
poems that represent a unified perspective that is perceived to be
projected by artwork itself
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
o born & worked in Vienna
o very influenced by Beethoven
o very productive composer wrote more than 600 lieder
o never had a steady patron & often supported by friends
o played in & composed music for salons
o Schubertiad: some of Schubertiad’s wealthier supporters would throw
parties (salons) that were dedicated primarily to the performance &
promotion of Schubert’s music
o died at age 31 probably of syphilis
o mostly known as song composer & pianist; symphonies “discovered” after