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MUAR 211 Lecture Notes - Tempo Rubato, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms

Music-Arts Faculty
Course Code
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

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MUAR 211 The Art of Listening Winter 2013
February 26th, 2013
program music: instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, scene or
anything “extra-musical”
o concert overture: one-movement work in sonata form for orchestra with a
descriptive title; nearly always has “overture” in the title
o symphonic poem: one-movement work in a free form for orchestra with a
descriptive title
absolute music: instrumental music that is not intended to portray a more or less
specific message or imagery
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
o progressive French composer
o celebrated for colourful orchestration & expansion of orchestra
o known for development of program music
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893(
o perhaps most famous & popular Russian composer of 19th century
o wrote very famous ballets (Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Nutcracker)
character piece: genre; gorgeous, one-movement miniatures for solo piano
o evokes a mood elegant, graceful, melodic, lyrical
o wide variety of fanciful titles often suggesting improvisatory style or style
dance types
o nocturne: night piece titles that suggest mood or are picturesque; ie/
Wild Hunt
o etudes: study technically difficult pieces
Fryderyc Chopin (1810-1849)
o born in Poland
o piano virtuoso who is most associated with musical scene of Paris & salons
of Parisian high society where he played his own works
o Polish nationalist work appealed to Parisian audience’s taste for exoticism
o taught piano lessons among this same wealthy group
o composed only music for the piano (alone or with other instruments)
o style is very characteristic & recognizable
o credited with creating modern piano style
o harmonically adventuresome
o died of tuberculosis at 39
rubato: to vary the time of a piece by slowing down or speeding up in an expressive
manner; often used before strong cadences or before other dissonance is resolved
which heightens listeners anticipation
Clara Shuman (1819-1896)
o virtuoso pianist, composer & leading interpreter of music of Johannes
Brahms, Chopin & Robert Schumann (her husband)
o married husband despite father’s strong objections to the marriage
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