MUAR 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Symphony No. 104 (Haydn), Concerto Grosso, Cadenza
Course CodeMUAR 211
Wednesday February 9, 2011
Haydn symphony: the Farewell Symphony (all the musicians leave at the end).
Movement is ‘moderato’, in is triple meter
It is a dance, so it is the 3rd movement
Besides symphony, genre that has 4 movements and contains a dance movement is
the string quartet.
Haydn (Symphony No. 104 in D Major)
At the beginning, it is not in D major yet, as the key is not established yet
Piano (or any keyboard) + flute = a sonata
In sonatas, the first movement is usually the most serious movement. The second
movement is slower, and more lyrical. The last movement is light once again.
In 1750 when they say sonata, they mean solo sonata.
Concerto grosso comes back in the 20th century, and they refer back to the Baroque
Something to spot about concertos is the cadence near the end of the first
movement, after which the soloist plats. This is a Cadenza (see notes). You always
have this in the first movement of a concerto, and sometimes you have it at the end
as well. At the time, this is where the soloists would improvise. But they would also
write out the cadenza, since not everyone can improvise. Nowadays they usually
play the written cadenza, but in Mozart’s time he would improvise that section.
They play the dominant chord, then there’s the improvisation, and then
they end on the tonic- this is the end of the piece
One of the ways in which the soloists signals to the orchestra that the solo
is done is with a trill (oscillation back and forth between two notes)
Must know the composers in order: Haydn was the first born, then Mozart, then
Beethoven. Mozart was the first to die.
Known as being a virtuoso harpsichord player and an opera composer
His music is catalogued by ‘K’ numbers (referring to the person who
catalogued his work)
One of the first composers considered a national hero
Theme and variations: you get a musical theme (the melody) and variations of that
If the main melody is in a major key, there is always at least one
obligatory minor variation