MUAR 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Gregorian Chant, Early Christianity, A Cappella

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4 Aug 2016
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Course
Professor
MUAR 211 14:09
9.08.15
Introduction, Basic Concepts, and Early Music History in the Western
World
-Medieval and Renaissance  quiz (music online that you have to know)
-Baroque  then exam
First three styles before first midterm
-Classic and Romantic  second exam
-20th century (1/3 of the class)
-On listening exams, list of pieces given in the study guide
Study guide for every quiz and exam
List of pieces that you have to know
Drop the needle test
Listen to it for the style traits he’s highlighting
-1st quiz
Almost entirely A cappella
-James Brown
Can be called different genres
Dating: electric base, English, secular (not religious/not intended for sacred
context or worship)
Almost all popular music is secular
Earliest written music in Western world, extant music, is sacred music
-Due to historiography  controls our knowledge/history as it is told
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9th 10th and 11th century only people who could write were monks
90% of population illiterate
Church has the bible and various writings
-Oldest instrument found 10 thousand years old, flute like instrument
-Hallelujah de santificatos something (in Latin)
First one then a response
Ensemble about the piece: A cappella (Latin = for the choir)
-Texture
Thing to listen for, also one of the more difficult things
Threads interlinked  in music is how many parts are there
Even if we all sang together, would be one part even though in different
octaves
-Octaves natural phenomenon
Physics: here the vibrations
Note or pitch from the piano vibrates at a particular frequency/known speed
= pitch
A beats at 440 megahertz
Violinists or wind player generally plays at the beginning of concert with A
and then tune everyone to that
Double frequency = octave higher
Octave is a basic interval
Half steps also there
-Early on: what genre, texture, ensemble, text of the piece
-Gregorian chant
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One texture
One part: one melody
Monophony  texture term
How many parts are there
Earliest music in the Western world = monophonic sacred vocal music
Appears to have been performed A cappella
Latin text
9th, 10th, and 11th century all that we find
-In China and India have older written music
Prejudices history = what is extant
-Classical period about 1750 to 1800
Hadean, Mozart, and Beethoven
19th century people started looking back and thought they are classic
example
They had their music played during and after their time (not like Bach)
-For concerts he highlights going to Early music ensemble
Orchestra very good
Opera
NY Met has theater broadcasts
-Ensemble (medium)
Instruments, voices, or anything else that makes sounds and takes part in
music making
“instrumentation”
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