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MUAR 211 (179)
Jerry M.Cain (110)

March 19th

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Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

MUAR 211 – The Art of Listening Winter 2013 th March 19 , 2013  general characteristics of art music in past century o marked with great individuality of expression & technical approach  greater diversity which lead to expressionism, impressionism, neoclassicism, primitivism o many composers developed individuals systems of harmony & methods of composition:  atonality – atonal music  this is a harmonic comment  no tonic center, not most important pitch  microtonality – microtonal music  doesn’t use our system of equal tempered octave  harmony term  serial procedures – serial music (integral serialism)  aleatory – aleatoric music (indeterminacy, chance, etc.) o new emphasis on rhythm & rhythmic possibilities often resulting in complex rhythmic relationships o search for new sound sources manifested in 2 main areas:  creation of new instruments  exploration of new uses for traditional, “art-music” instruments  extended techniques o creative manipulation of classical forms & genres o avant-garde aesthetic  often questions fundamental assumptions/serves as example of particular philosophical stance  can be very challenging for performers & audiences  the point of a work of art can be to pose a questions never asked before o contemporary works of art music demonstrate unprecedented fixation of music history, on music of recent and/or distant part through self-conscious rejection and/or imitation  neoclassicism resulted from this fascination with & knowledge of art of previous style periods th o 20 century = emergence of N & S American composers to internal acclaim for the first time o later 20 century saw increasing erosion of Eurocentric biases in art music culture  increasing awareness, cultivation & integration of diverse musical cultures around the world into the classical, art-music tradition  impressionism o French movement developed by painters who tried to capture fleeting image of subject through innovative use of light, colour & perspective o demonstrates fascination for continuous change in appearance of places & things with playing with changing light, presenting more or less distinct images & moods with minimally sketched detail o reaction against grandiose imagery, dramatic action & heroic historical themes inspired late romantic art o paintings characterized by:  soft, pastel hues, creatively mixed washed of colour  hazy, defuse, indistinct painting style, often resulting in sketchy surface that lacks minute details yet capture essential elements  very pretty & pleasant subjects: natural scenes, ballerinas, water, nudes, idealized images of Parisian city life MUAR 211 – The Art of Listening Winter 2013  symbolism – symbolist poetry o French phenomenon o often, instrumental music was based on text in the 19 century, but in the 20 century the model was the plastic arts (sculpture, painting) o symbolist movement in literature, contemporary with impressionism in painting & some artists were interested in & influenced by both stylistic movements o focuses strongly on pleasant & evocative sounds of words in combination o not non-sensical  works can be metaphorically & symbolically rich in meaning, but meaning is often ambiguous & open to multiple interpretations  you must know the dates of the world wars  Claude Desbussy (1862-1918) o most important French composer of early 20 century  very important innovator o precocious & musically talented child, entered Paris conservatory at age of 11 o very influenced by performances of Wagner’s music dramas he saw at Bayreuth o biggest innovation  harmonic language o also influenced by non-western music o Prelude to an Afternoon of a Faun has been a popular subject of numerous ballet choreographies but ballet is not this work’s original genre  musical characteristics o lush, innovative harmonic language that is extremely chromatic & other harmonic effects that were quite controversial at Paris Conservatory  music is not atonal  so chromatic it can’t be compared on the major/minor scale o master of orchestration  drew on resources of very large & colourful late-romantic orchestra yet usually used instruments in small combinations o melodies are long, winding & freely developed, often occurring over a lush (chromatic) & static harmonic background o preferred short, lyric musical forms often with descriptive titles  pentatonic (five-pitch) scale adds an exotic (non tonal) sound to the piece o found in music of exotic cultures o Debussy incorporates this into his scale to make his music seem exotic  he also uses octatonic scale  harmonic planning is when you have multiple parts that are moving in parallel motion with one another, and this parallel motion has a lot of extended notes in it but they do not o each chord has the same interval content (all within same distance of one another)  gives them a sense
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