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Lecture 3

Jan 10 2011- Lecture 3.docx

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McGill University
Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

Monday, January 10, 2011 Lecture Three Part of the Ordinary of the Mass: KYRIE Kyrie eleison Lord, Have mercy Kyrie eleison Lord, Have mercy Kyrie eleison Lord, Have mercy Christe eleison Christ, Have Mercy Christe eleison Christ, Have Mercy Christe eleison Christ, Have Mercy Kyrie eleison Lord, Have mercy Kyrie eleison Lord, Have mercy Kyrie eleison Lord, Have mercy  This part is always part of the mass no matter the time of year (therefore part of the Mass Ordinary)  It’s at the beginning, and it is in Greek, therefore some parts of Roman Catholic liturgy is in Greek (the rest of Gregorian chant is in Latin) o Both of these languages were dead languages by the 9 th century o They were being maintained by scholars and church authorities with these sacred texts  The church was very involved in preserving learning.  There is also a part of the mass which changes depending on the year. o Roman Catholics have the liturgical calendar (as well as the Episcopalians) o For eg: during Christmas, you celebrate things about Advent, etc.  This leads to a HUGE amount of text and music to memorize, therefore people did this as a profession- they wrote the music, memorized it (this was done before it was written, historically) Another part of the Mass Ordinary is the GLORIA.  Notice how it’s more expansive.  In the example he showed, it was sung A Capella. Polyphonic music- multiple parts, and multiple independent parts. Sometimes you have multiple parts but one is an accompaniment- that is Homophonic music.  Polyphonic music goes back a while. o Early Polyphonic music would just have two parts, that always stay the same distance from each other, a Fifth (a certain distance/interval between the pitches). o They would be on parallel intervals/Fifths, singing the same part at the same time on different pitches.  That was called “Organum” o Now it can be 3 or 4 different parts that are all different. Sometimes they can come together for cadences at the end of a line of text (so you get the satisfactory conclusion), but a lot of the time they are independent, moving at different pitches. The Credo is even more expansive (lists things that you believe in if you are Roman Catholic) th th St. Augustine (etc.) were writing about music in the 4 century, much before the 9 century (first manuscripts). We must divide the Medieval times into 4 parts. Three manners of performing chant:  Everyone is singing together, or someone is singing alone (solo or uniform performance)  Responsorial o Hildegard of Bingen piece we must know: example of a responsorial o Sometimes the response is a text that they must say or sing back, or it can just be “amen” or “alleluja”  Antiphonal singing: singers are divided into groups that take turns singing phrases of texts HOMEWORK: Look at links in notes. What we have to know about the 9 thcentury is that there are big theory treatises, and it’s when we start seeing musical notation.  The treatises, for example, involved defining modes, etc.  This represented a more uniform practice in Europe St. Hildegard of Bingen So far no actual composers have been mentioned- they were anonymous, and the music was given to them by God. Being a famous composer was not important- the music was about worship. For a while, Hildegard of Bingen was ignored. Possibly because she was a woman. She was a visionary and a mystic. Her music had a different style as it was more elaborate.  As a young child, she had “visions” which could tell the future o This could have been a result of migraines o He hid her visions for a long time, as they made her strange o Eventually she was made to write it down, and she became very famous for a women of her time  Her thoughts on botany, etc was also written down o Her advice was often sought out, and she lived
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