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Lecture 4

Jan 12 2011- Lecture 4.docx

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Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

Wednesday, January 12, 2011 Lecture Four For quiz: Know the Composer and song name, as well as Genre, texture, 2 things about the text (language, function sacred/secular). Books at the time were very precious- they spent hours to decorate the texts. Example shown is an “O” from a book, with designs depicting illumination, and inside the book, monks singing from one (shared) book.  They shared books because they were so valuable. In churches, singing was often done in “Antiphony”, where the choir was divided into two sides of the room and they sang at each other. Secular Vocal Music (of the 12 thCentury) Secular vocal music is music for entertainment, and began around the 12h century.  It was originally anything that was written down, often by monks and nuns.  We often have secular songs (secular topics) in Latin. o But mostly they are in vernacular languages (languages that were spoken) o This is strange as all sacred music was in Latin or Greek.  These were literate people, and tended to be wealthy. They are supported by the church (very wealthy). This music is usually associated with royal courts, or aristocracy. o This music would be performed at court.  The music is always monophonic. o Had a single melody line  It was about things done at court (knitting, etc), but mostly love, and sometimes sex. Beatriz A chantar- example used.  It’s an example of unrequited love.  It’s in pre-French There is no music from before this period that survives today. Images show that lutes were used, but there is no music that actually can be used. th In the 12 century, we see the very first instrumental music. The people who played music would have memorized and improvised music played at weddings, etc. th  By the 14 thcentury, there’s an explosion of written instrumental music.  In the 12 century, they are usually dances. Played: Estampie  A dance, has a metric beat o The metric beat was usually in multiples of two or three.  They would play this melody over and over again, and improvise on them.  It is monophonic (in the 12 thcentury, the dances/music was all monophonic). If you just have a drone accompaniment, it is still considered monophonic. Drone is an accompaniment, but in that sense silence is a drone as well.  It’s repetitive, it does not react to the music at all.  It was not included in the original manuscripts, which just showed the main line. Art music: music for connoisseurs, for aristocrats with training (music of the troubadors, etc). The Notre Dame School It is not a school in the sense that people went to the same building. Notre Dame was built in the 12 thcentury (the first universities were founded in the th 12 century as well).  The Notre Dame composers worked at the Notre Dame cathedral, and also people who went to the university in Paris. The oldest Notre Dame composers (Leonin, Perotin) are only known ab
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