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Lecture 10

Jan 26 2011- Lecture 10.docx

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Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

Wednesday January 26, 2011 Lecture Ten Come, Thou Fount of Every Blessing  Example of a chorale texture o Chorales are supposed to be very simple o In this example, there are 4 parts (SATB texture), indicated by brackets on sheet music o Syllabic text setting, homorhymic (all moving together rhythmically), it’s conjunct (the pitches are not far from each other, not for professional singers)  Disjunct melody would have wide leaps in it, the intervals would be large (for professional singers) o Its strophic, meaning that every verse of the text has the same music, it has repeated music (finishing the text, go back to the top for the second verse and the music does not change) o Often the very last thing in a cantata is a chorale  In the 16 thcentury (Renaissance), one of the things that Martin Luther wanted to encourage was more congregational singing (everyone singing together) Violin has a flat back, lute has a curved back. The ars nova was a type of music and musical notation invented in the 1300s. All of the music we use today (system of music) was invented then. It shows us pitch (how high or low the note you’re trying to play is) accurately, duration (short, ½ beat, 1/16 beat, etc). This is what we get in the notated music from 14-1600s, and that’s about all we get (as well as a text). We don’t get the loudness of the music, the timbre, from music before 1600s. No music told us what instruments played what parts.  It would say that it was for “4 voices”, for example, in which any combination could be used (1 voice, 3 recorders, etc).  This was done to not narrow down the way in which the music could be played Monteverdi and Vivaldi were among the first to start notating which instruments to play.  Increasingly common after 1600 is that everything about the music is specified (including loudness and timbre). Score: piece of music that showed you all of the parts. If there’s a voice and a piano, it would show both parts, for example.  The individual players got Parts, which showed what each person did.  At first, conductors had to make their own scores.  Sometimes if it’s just a very small ensemble, sometimes its practical to play from a score  But from the most part, people who read scores to do for either conducting or for studying purposes Dynamic markings (know 6 terms as well as the symbols, that will appear either above or below the music), and the tempo terms (know all five). Ornamentation is something that we assume is a very old practice.  It’s an improvisational practice that later became a notated practice.  Early Baroque recordings can be boring because at first, no one knew they did this  There are also manuals about how to play the instruments (also in the Renaissance), and it explains ornamentation for each instrument as
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