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MUAR 392 Slide Notes May 4th.docx

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Music-Arts Faculty
Course Code
MUAR 392
Melvin Backstrom

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MUAR 392 Notes May 4 th Chapter 18: Ray Charles (1930-2004) films and in a great deal of live performance (e.g.  R&B instrumentation in Broadway musicals)  Gospel influenced singing style o ASCAP vs. BMI  Significant use of call and response  Rival licensing agency, formed by radio  Very successfully adapted gospel songs to secular: “It Must Be Jesus” became networked in 1939 “I‟ve Got a Woman”; “This Little Light of  Radio stations in Mine” became “This Little Girl of Mine” dispute with ASCAP over increased licensing  But not everyone was happy – why not?  Listen to What’d I Say (1959) fees form rival BMI  What are some characteristics of this (Broadcast Music Ing) in 1939 song?  At first tries to get Tin  What is a “concept” album? Pg 93 Pan Alley songwriters to Why did Ray Charles say his music was NOT defect, but generally unsuccessful Rock & Roll?  Decides instead to sign  It was for adults up those who had been  Was sometimes depressing excluded from ASCAP, hillbilly, race, jazz and  Was not part of dance crazes latin musicians whose The Beginning of Rock & Roll music did not fit the ASCAP molk  Recording Industry Developments  Allows songwriters in o ASCAP (American Society of these musical genres to Composers and Publishers) make a living, become  Founded in 1914 to professionals o Major record companies in protect interests of songwriters and late 1940s publishers by collecting  Capitol royalties for music  Columbia  Decca printing, public performances and  RCA Victor recordings o Chapter 12: What is an “Indie”  Favoured Tin Pan Alley record company? musical tradition; well-  Nominally independent crafted songs with from control of major sophisticated labels harmonies, jazz  Primarily recorded C&W rhythms and love and/or R&B artists themes  1948-1955:  Race and Hillbilly Decentralization of songwriters were market as C&W and effectively excluded R&B became thus depriving them of increasingly important opportunity to reap full  Recorded country financial benefit of their and/or R&B artists that songs‟ success majors either didn‟t  By 1950, oligopoly of 18 know about or weren‟t ASCAP publishers interested in controlled what music was heard on radio; in  Benefited by  Played important role in decentralization of development of Soul industry in 1948=55 music, but also released o What advantages did/do indie blues, gospel, jazz and record companies have? funk  Low overhead, low, or  Booker T and the MG‟s non-existent, royalties; was “house” band: low costs for supporting Famous for instrumental talent and recording hit “Green Onions”  Closer to “street,” less  Volt Records: hierarchy in Subsidiary label begun management; more in 1961 to circumvent aware of consumer suspicious of payola demand than majors o Atlantic Records  Can make money off  Founded in 1947 by small production runs, Turkish immigrant making possible music Ahmer Ertegun production for smaller,  Primarly R&B and jazz more specialized at first, but moved into markets country and then rock &  Benefited by roll decentralization of  “Uptown” style appealed industry in 1948=55 to white audience  Introduction of vinyl 33  Achieved “cleaner” rpm 12 inch and 45 rpm recording sound by 7 inch records; not as recording instruments fragile as older shellac separately and close up 78 rpm records, control  One of first labels to of distribution chains not record in stereo as important  Cleaner recording o King Records sound through separate  Founded in 1943 miking of rhythm  Based in Cincinnati instruments  Initially focused on o A Brief History of Atlantic country (then known as Records “hillbilly”) music, but  Founded in 1947 R&B artists came to  Various sub-labels: Cat dominate in 1950s Records (1954) for  Notable for encouraging R&B; Ateo Records blending of country and (1955) for more pop- R&B: country singers oriented music, bought covering R&B songs Spark Records (1955); and vice versa Lava Records (1955
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