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MUAR 392 Lecture Notes May 7.docx

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Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 392
Melvin Backstrom

MUAR 392 Lecture Notes May 7 th Texture  The way in which musical parameters (melody, harmony, rhythm, timbre) come together in a composition  Especially pertains to relationship between harmony and melody/melodies  Monophonic: Single unaccompanied melody  Polyphonic: Two or more simultaneous melodies  Homophonic: Single accompanied melody  Homorhythmic: Multiple voices with same or very similar rhythms Musical Forms  32-bar/measure AABA  12-bar/measure blues  Strophic/Chorus Form o Simplest musical form: A single repeating musical section to which different lyrics are set at each repetition o So AAA o Also modified strophic form in which pattern is somewhat modified in some or all repetitions: AAA  Verse-Chorus Form o Defined by verses with same music, different lyrics, though sometimes last time repeats lyrics of first (A) o Repeated chorus (part with musical “hook”) between verses, often repeated back to back at end (B) o Typical form is AABABABB o A common addition is a bridge (C) a non-repeated section contrasting musically and lyrically with verses and chorus, almost always occurring afterchorus: AABABCABB  Through-Composed Form o Form in which each verse is set to different music o So ABCD (always changing) o Most common in genres in which text painting is highly valued: e.g. madrigal o Very uncommon in popular music! Can you think of any examples? Tonality  Tonality: A systematic hierarchy of tones allowing for the creation, frustration and fulfillment of desire for music to move in certain ways  Most important: movement from I chord to V chord (in the key of C: C>G) resolving back to I  Listen to “Wake Me Up Before You Gogo” by Wham! (1984)  Listen especially for how harmonic rise and fall before chorus creates, then frustrates and finally satisfies desire coinciding with onset of the “hook” Doo-Wop  Groups: Drifters, Platters, Coasters, etc.  Musical style dominated by R&B/Gospel influenced vocals with lead voice-supported and responded to by backing vocal group  Almost always a quartet  Two versions of “Crying in the Chapel (1953)  Listen to Darell Glenn “Country (original), the Orioles – R&B/Doo-wop  Listen to two version of “Sh Boom” (1954) o The Chords o The Crew Cuts  Listen to Drifters “There Goes My baby” (1959) Chapter 20, 25, 26: What attitudes did Rock n’ Roll inspire in the Public? The Press?  What does Variety (Chapter 20) think of R&B/Rock & Roll?  Plot by NAACP to lower American youth’s morals? Page 130  NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Rock and Rolle called Communicable Disease?  What does Frank Sinatra say? Page 128. Why might he think this?  Rock and Roll as euphemism for sex, promoting rebellion and immorality  How does Chicago Defender (Page 130) defend R&R? What does the author argue is really going on in worries over it?  Fear of integration Chapter 21 Langston Hughes Responds  Famous African-American writer in Chicago Defender – most widely read African-American newspaper at the time  What does he think about relations between blacks and whites in the music business?  What is the one word that best expresses his point?  Appropriation Chapter 27: Payola Scandal  Brief History of Radio DJs o DJ rose in importance in late 1940s as resources of networks moved to TV o In early 1950s many white DJs become very successful with young whites playing African-American music o Seen by some as conspiracy to promote rock & roll o Rise of Top 40 AM radio standardization in 1960s: role of DJ starts to wane o In late 1960s influence of DJs shifts to new FM stations: growth of Album Oriented Rock (AOR)  What is Payola? o Directly paying or giving DJs financial stake in records to encourage their airplay o Although seen by many as immoral, it had a long history in the music business and was not actually illegal  How did payola benefit independent companies? o Gave them an opportunity to compete with majors bypassing their control of major distribution channels: if they could get a hit song by getting one major DJ to play a record it was very lucrative o 1959-1960: Congressional Payola hearings – why? Whose interests were at stake in payola controversy?  What happened to Alan Freed (Cleveland DJ)?  What happened to Dick Clark (Philadelphia’s American Bandstand)?  How can we explain the differences? Why is Rock n’ Roll thought to have nearly died in late 1950s?  What happened to these people? o Little Richard (1957) o Elvis Presely (1958) o Jerry Lee Lewis (1958) o Chuck Berry (1959) o Buddy Holly (1959) o Richie Vallens (
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