NSCI 410 Lecture Notes - Gordon Allport, Carl Jung, Fundamental Interaction

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5 Feb 2013
Three fundamental forces
History of traits, founder of it, Gordon Allport, the idea that there is a science of traits by looking at the
natural language
Raymond Catell used factor analysis to bring the large number of words that describe humans into a small
number or underlying traits
Controversy of traits, if there is cross-situational consistency
Walter Michel who said there really is very little impressive evidence of cross-situational consistency, and
the responses to the critique, those trait psychologists said it could be measured by averaging
behaviours across a period of time
Michel’s reply to the aggregation, new idea of person by situation interactionism, and the model which
looks at very unique patterns and profiles of behaviour
Modern traits psychology, the big five, most personality variations can be summarized by five dimensions,
neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness
Consequences and correlates of these traits, the relationship between neuroticism and negative affect,
extroversion and social dominance, conscientiousness and educational and occupational success,
openness and hypnotic ability, etc. (remember the correlates)
Trait psychology from three primary perspectives
Psychoanalytic approach, very dark view of people, conflicted and anxious and often hiding the truth from
ourselves, Freud and his key ideas, and his student Carl Jung, the archetypes, we are constantly trying
to reconcile the components inside us
Behaviourism, the classical behaviourists, Watson and skinner and their focus on overt, observable,
behaviour, if you cant see it, its not worth studying, Bandura, Michel focus on covert behaviour, the
thoughts and feelings inside us, unseen parts to us
Bandura and self efficacy, Rotter and expectancy, Michel and integrated framework (remember the
analysts and what they were known for)
Humanism, optimistic view, Rogers and his emphasis on human need for positive regard, human
inclination on what conditions of worth we need to satisfy and Rogers view of how people change by
giving them unconditional positive regard, and Maslow and his hierarchy of needs, lower order must
be met before higher order needs become salient, we need to self-actualize (the top of hierarchy)
9 lectures to this topic, 10 lecture questions
e.g. which trait has consistently been found to be most predictive of social status to face-to face such as
fraternities and sororities? Emotional stability, conscientiousness, extraversion or openness
Social psychology
Study of the situation, of how human behaviour changes due to the presence of other people
Attitudes and prejudice, conformity and influence
Attitudes are fundamentally an evaluation of something in the world, person, place or thing, only under
very strict conditions do our attitudes influence/predict our behaviour (know what the four conditions
Our behaviour can sometimes determine our attitudes, sometimes we can be induced to behave a certain a
way, and given that behaviour we must adjust our attitude, seen in Festingers study of compliance, if
people can be induced to behave in a way inconsistent with their attitude, they will change their
attitude to be consistent with our behaviour
Prejudice, a negative evaluation based on arbitrary characteristics, how it experiences from point of view
of the target, stereotype threat, they are representing their group, and they fulfill that due to social
pressures, e.g. women and their ability in math depending on their minority or majority settings
Conformity and influence, human behaviour is very flexible, people can be made to agree with a group of
people who are clearly wrong, even if they know it is not correct, Milgrim experiments, studies of
pain, how readily people will harm others simply because an authority has instructed to do so
4 lecture questions
e.g. The most robust finding from the Milgrim studies is that participants:
-rarely disobey the experimenter -disobey when the learner expresses pain
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