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Ambert& Crull (2006) article summary

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NUR1 221
Shari Gagne

Family Violence,Abuse & Child Neglect byAmbert & Krull  Sibling violence and peer abuse most common types of maltreatment  In 2001, family violence constituted 1/4 of all violent crimes reported Dating and Courtship Violence  Dating is ground for some youth to continue their aggressive behaviours toward peers  Opportunity for some to discover new arena in which to exercise power  Few incidents reported to authorities  Estimated that over 20% of women students are assaulted in a broad sense each year  Dating violence predicts domestic abuse later on in married life  Men and women both involved in inflicting harm o Women sustain most of the injuries o Violence carried out by women is often in self-defence  Date Rape o In 1993, found 28% sexual abuse rate among female university students in Canada (but with a broad definition) o 20% ofAmerican female college students surveyed mention having been forced to have sexual intercourse o Most never report anything to authorities o Situation worsened in 1990s with arrival of readily available drugs to drop into women's drinks o Gang rape = “power trip” and partriarchal dominance o In 1990, 30% of male students admitted they would force sex on a women if they thought they could get away with it  Sources of Dating Violence o Most studies cite psychological and familial explanations, excluding extra- familial and cultural influences  Prevents us from fully understanding how particular behaviours emerge o Social construction of masculinity includes violent attitudes toward females & mentality of sexual entitlement o This cultural climate is reflected in the media, and pornographic materials that many men and boys are exposed to, containing violent sex o Research on children exposed to interparental violence as an origin of dating violence has had inconclusive findings  Exposure to interparental violence during adolescence and young adulthood and having been harshly treated by one's parents constitute risk factors o Males who assault their dates were on average more aggressive as boys  Many exhibited behavioural problems as children and may still be out of control  Same pattern among some abusive females  Males who engage in dating violence more likely to have engaged in delinquent acts and drug use than other males o Two categories of abusers who are married: those who limit abuse to home and those who are also violent in other contexts Verbal and PsychologicalAbuse of Partners  Verbal abuse = repeatedly referring to one's partner with epithets; use of foul language; berating and demeaning put-downs; and threatening + criticizing 1. Purpose is to dominate, exercise power 2. Also to rationalize or excuse one's bad behaviour by demeaning the other 3. ABUSE is repeated behaviour  Verbal abuse sets a precedent for physical abuse in the relationship  Males in particular practise both types of abuse  Verbal abuse may be on the increase -> e.g. often seen in music videos 1. Represents a lack of civility - “toxic” environment in which people raise children  Psychological abuse often tailored to fit partner's vulnerabilities 1. Can focus on facial features, body shape, clumsiness, lack of mental agility or unemployment & financial difficulties  Especially vulnerable are adolescents who begin dating at an early age 1. May consider boyfriends' over-possessiveness and extreme jealousy as proof of love 2. Can have negative effects on personal development & dynamics of intimate relationships later Spousal and Partner PhysicalAbuse  Attempt at regaining power when one thinks it is slipping away  Women at risk when they try to separate or after separation  Cultural framework allows them to have recourse to violence as an ego booster  Stressful occupations may lead men to compensate against partners, those with physical violent occupations may use these techniques at home  Some cultural backgrounds promote violence for keeping women “in line” and to save the family's honour  3 types of violent men based on frequency & severity of violence, wives' fears of husband, and men's attitude towards violence 1. Violence in family only 2. Medium-violent 3. Generally violent, psychologically distressed types  Range of ViolentActs 1. Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) in descending order of severity 1. Threw something at spouse 2. Pushed, grabbed, or shoved spouse 3. Slapped spouse 4. Kicked, bit or hit spouse with fist 5. Hit or tried to hit spouse with something 6. Beat up spouse 7. Choked spouse 8. Threatened spouse with a knife or gun 9. Used knife or gun on spouse 2. Most acts committed are on less severe range – but once wife is victim, tends to be repeated, about 3 times per year; may even be attacked in pregnancy 3. 8% of Canadian women and 7% of Canadian men report experiencing spousal abuse in past 5 years; women commit violence but usually not as severe as males, those who do are rare 4. Women may fear pain or retaliation; less muscular, tall, heavy, strong, so results of aggressiveness are usually less consequential physically and partners may not take assaults seriously 5. When men attack, effect far more lethal, may result in bruises, concussions and broken bones; women feel more of a loss of feelings of personal control than men do, and are more likely to become depressed 6. Rape is also an aspect of spousal violence  Factors Related to SpousalAbuse 1. Facilitated by culture of violence and ideologies of masculine dominance over women 2. Influence of alcohol or other substance; may see this as an excuse or reason for abuse 3. Cohabiting couples
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