Approaching theAdolescent-Headed Family:AReview of Teen Parenting - Savio Beers.
-In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers (normally described as
mother of 19 years old or less)
-This review explores these as psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors in relation
to teen parenting.
Background -Teen Births in the USA- Statistics.
declining rates since the 1970s in USA- but has rised between 2005-2007
1 in 6 women nationwide are projected to become teen mothers
11% of all US births are to adolescent mothers
US birth rate is significantly (up to 7 times) higher than in other Western industrialized
57% deliver a live infant, 27% -abortion, and 16% -miscarriage
40% of adolescent mother have had previous abortion/miscarriage.
There are significant geographic, racial, and ethnic disparities :
-Teen birth rate for Hispanic is higher than that of non-Hispanic blacks or whites (83, 64, 27 per
1000 births, respectively).
- varies from states: 62/1000 in New Mexico + Texas; 18/1000 in New New Hampshire.
"Adolescent pregnancy is associated with many factors. , including decreased parent-child
connectedness, decreased parental monitoring, more permissive parental attitudes regarding
adolescent sexual activity, community and family disorganization and disruption, parental
characteristics (such as being a teen parent themselves), absence of positive peer norms, and low
partner support for contraceptive use, low socioeconomic status, decreased educational attainment,
residence with a single parent, and low parental education are highly related to the risk of early sexual
activity and adolescent pregnancy. "
Maternal and Child Outcomes of Teen Childbearing – can have many social, economic and health related
consequences, however, the family may do equally well to their socioeconomic peers. (Especially when
strong social and functional support is provide).
-pregnant adolescents are at increased risk for complications such as anemia, poor
maternal weight gain, toxemia, increased mortality, and premature delivery and low
Less likely to initiate early prenatal care.
-↑ school failure
↑ dependence on government support
↓ children : lower levels of kindergarten readiness ;
↑Academic difficulties, school adjustment problems, and increased risks of developmental delay, drugs use, etc.
* more at risk for becoming adolescent mother as well
-Most of the mother are unmarried (92% aged 15-17 – 81% aged 18-19).
-Most of them divorce.
-More likely to have repeat births in their teens. (associated with more negative outcomes)
Psychosocial Influences on theAdolescent-Headed Family
Forced to mature before they are ready
Emotions are volatile
Mental Health Concerns
-Very high incidence of depression (30% to 59%)
- ↓ social support and poor partner relations - ↑ incidence of depression
-negative impact on the child (all age)
- ↑ Suicidal attempts.
- in white families, teen mothers who were more involved in the decision-making were less likely to
be depressed; however, the opposite was true for black teens
-Factors increasing young mother's levels of stress are: grandparent criticism, inadequate partner
support, poor emotional health, maternal perception of difficult child temperament, and intimate
partner violence ( last one is especially high)
- We should be aware of the teen mother own maturation, and sensitive to teen concerns such as
altered peer contact, withdrawals from school, etc.
Impact on Parenting
-The literature suggests:
- ↓ interactive,
- ↓ positive in their parenting style,
- have more difficulties problem-solving,
-↑ unrealistic expectations of their infant's development
-pre-existing mental health is an important predictor of parenting capacity
Teen mother strongly relates on their own mother for advice regarding child care
More likely to abuse their chi