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McGill University
NUR1 221
Shari Gagne

Approaching theAdolescent-Headed Family:AReview of Teen Parenting - Savio Beers. Introduction: -In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers (normally described as mother of 19 years old or less) -This review explores these as psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors in relation to teen parenting. Background -Teen Births in the USA- Statistics.  declining rates since the 1970s in USA- but has rised between 2005-2007  1 in 6 women nationwide are projected to become teen mothers  11% of all US births are to adolescent mothers  US birth rate is significantly (up to 7 times) higher than in other Western industrialized countries  57% deliver a live infant, 27% -abortion, and 16% -miscarriage  40% of adolescent mother have had previous abortion/miscarriage. There are significant geographic, racial, and ethnic disparities : -Teen birth rate for Hispanic is higher than that of non-Hispanic blacks or whites (83, 64, 27 per 1000 births, respectively). - varies from states: 62/1000 in New Mexico + Texas; 18/1000 in New New Hampshire. "Adolescent pregnancy is associated with many factors. , including decreased parent-child connectedness, decreased parental monitoring, more permissive parental attitudes regarding adolescent sexual activity, community and family disorganization and disruption, parental characteristics (such as being a teen parent themselves), absence of positive peer norms, and low partner support for contraceptive use, low socioeconomic status, decreased educational attainment, residence with a single parent, and low parental education are highly related to the risk of early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. " Maternal and Child Outcomes of Teen Childbearing – can have many social, economic and health related consequences, however, the family may do equally well to their socioeconomic peers. (Especially when strong social and functional support is provide).  -pregnant adolescents are at increased risk for complications such as anemia, poor maternal weight gain, toxemia, increased mortality, and premature delivery and low weight infants.  Less likely to initiate early prenatal care.  -↑ school failure  ↑ dependence on government support  ↓ children : lower levels of kindergarten readiness ;  ↑Academic difficulties, school adjustment problems, and increased risks of developmental delay, drugs use, etc.  * more at risk for becoming adolescent mother as well Adolescent-Headed Families -Most of the mother are unmarried (92% aged 15-17 – 81% aged 18-19). -Most of them divorce. -More likely to have repeat births in their teens. (associated with more negative outcomes) Psychosocial Influences on theAdolescent-Headed Family  Forced to mature before they are ready  Emotions are volatile  Mental Health Concerns -Very high incidence of depression (30% to 59%) - ↓ social support and poor partner relations - ↑ incidence of depression -negative impact on the child (all age) - ↑ Suicidal attempts. - in white families, teen mothers who were more involved in the decision-making were less likely to be depressed; however, the opposite was true for black teens -Factors increasing young mother's levels of stress are: grandparent criticism, inadequate partner support, poor emotional health, maternal perception of difficult child temperament, and intimate partner violence ( last one is especially high) - We should be aware of the teen mother own maturation, and sensitive to teen concerns such as altered peer contact, withdrawals from school, etc. Impact on Parenting -The literature suggests: - ↓ interactive, - ↓ positive in their parenting style, - have more difficulties problem-solving, -↑ unrealistic expectations of their infant's development  -pre-existing mental health is an important predictor of parenting capacity  Teen mother strongly relates on their own mother for advice regarding child care  More likely to abuse their chi
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