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Lecture 2

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NUR1 221
Sebastien Breau

Statistics  What proportion of Canadian males and females can now “expect” to be legally married at least once by the time they reach the age of 50? 1/2 th  What percentage of those that are legally married can “expect” to divorce before their 30 wedding anniversary? 38%  Living together before legal marriage is the basis for a more long-lasting marriage. Is this true or false? False  What proportion of persons aged 25-29 still live at home with their parents? 1/5  What percentage of Canadian men claim that they are “very satisfied or satisfied” with life? 86%  What percentage of divorced or separated women are now in the labor force? 83%  What percentage of “couples” aged 65 and over now live in poverty? 12% Top 10 Trends 1) Fewer couples legally married 2) More couples breaking up 3) Families getting smaller 4) Children experience more transitions – parents changing legal status 5) Canadians are satisfied with life 6) Family violence is under-reported 7) Multiple earner families are now the norm 8) Women still do most of the juggling in balancing work and home 9) Inequality is worsening 10) The future will have more aging families Family Trends  Aged 15 and over who are single – INCREASING  Aged 15 and over living in a couple (married or common law) – DECREASING  Couples (married and common law) with children – DECREASING  Couples (married and common law) with at least one child under 25 – DECREASING  One person household – INCREASING  Households containing a couple with children – DECREASING  Households containing a couple without children – INCREASING  Average household size – DECREASING  Median household income – INCREASING  In 2006 there were 8, 896, 800 census families in Canada  Married couples constituted 68.6% of families but proportion steadily decreasing over past 20 years  Common law couples increased 18.9% between 2001 and 2006  Lone parent families headed by men increased 14.6% between 2001 and 2006, more than 2x the growth of lone-parent families headed by women ( 6.3%)  For the first time there were more couples without children 42.7% than couples with children 41.4% in census families  Significant growth in number of same-sex couples – 32.6% increase from 2001 to 2006 o Growth more than 5x the growth observed for opposite sex couples.  Households declining – in 2006, there were more than 3x as many one-person households ( 26.8%) as those consisting of 5 or more people ( 8.7%)  2/3 of Canada’s total of 5.6 million children aged 14 and under lived with married parents in 2006 – decline from 81.2% in 1996  A growing proportion of children aged 4 and under had a mother in her forties – in 2001 7.8% of children had a mother between 40 and 49 and in 2006, this proportion increased to 9.4%  The proportion of young adults aged 20 to 29 who lived in their parental home continued to increase, following a 20 year upward trend o In 2006, 43.5% lived at home , up from 32.1% two decades earlier Poverty in Canada: 2006 Update  In 2004, the proportion of Canadians living in poverty fell to 4.9% - the lowest level in history  Canada’s child poverty rate also hit a historic low of 5.6% (1/18 children were poor)  Significant decline in child poverty and overall poverty since 1996 - 37% decrease for individuals and 46% for children  Over the past 55 years, the poverty rate for Canadian households has fallen from 41.2% to 6.6%  Basic needs approach to poverty determines: o Cost of food, shelter, clothing, health care, personal care, essential furnishings , transportation, and communication, laundry, home insurance and miscellaneous for various communities across Canada and then determines how many households have insufficient income to afford those need Contemporary Family Facts 2006  23.4% of all common-law couple families in Canada live in metropolitan Montréal and Québec  Legalization of same-sex marriages in July 2005 - 16% of same-sex couples were married  Increase of 11.8% in one person household from 2001  Increase of couples without children aged 24 years and younger increased 11.2% since 2001  2006, 43.5% of 4 million young adults 20-29 lived in parental home ( 2001 – 41.1% and 1986 – 32.1%)  48.5% of persons 15 and over were legally married in 2006 (2001- 50.1% and 1986 - 61.4%) Shifting Family Forms: Traditional VS. Non-Traditional  Married/co-habiting heterosexual adults with or without children  lone parent by choice with child  divorced with or without custody or joint custody  gay/lesbian with or without children  Nuclear family – mother, father children  Extended family – nuclear plus other relatives of one or both spouses who co-habit or do not co-habit  Blended family – one divorced or widowed adult with all or some of his/her children and a new spouse with all or some of his/her children as well as children born to this union so that parents, parents children ( from union) and stepchildren (from other union) live together.  Patrifocal - man has authority and decision-making power  Matrifocal – woman has main authority and decision-making power Family Structures – Internal and External  Family composition, rank order, sub-systems, boundaries  Core dimensions – roles, communication, decision-making, values  Internal work – goal-setting, fulfilling tasks, meeting everyday demands  Culture, religion, social class, mobility  Environment and extended family The Family as a System Moving Through Time  Families comprise persons who have a shared history and a shared future  Comprise entire emotional systems of at least three generations – connected by blood, legal or historical ties  Relationships with family go through transitions moving along the life cycle  Roles , boundaries, psychological connections constantly being redefined  Incorporate new members by birth, adoption commitment, marriage and members leave only by death  Main value in families are relationships which are irreplaceable  Nuclear families are emotional subsystems that react to past, present and anticipated future relationships within larger multigenerational family system  Spiritual and cultural factors influence how families go through life cycle – variations on definition of tasks o Also contextual factors – economic, time in history  families lack time perspective when they are having problems – may magnify the present moment , feeling overwhelmed and immobilized by immediate feeling or become fixed Shifting Family Forms – Traditional VS. Non-Traditional  Concept of family life cycle first developed by Duvall in 1962 o Divided family life cycle into eight stages with developmental tasks at each stage o Based on: major change in family size, the developmental stage of the oldest child, work status of the breadwinner  Looking at Carter and McGoldrick (1980, 1989) focus is on major points at which family members enter or exit the family, changing the family equilibrium o Emphasis is placed on relationships that are altered so that the family can move from one life cycle stage to another o Each developmental stage is separated from the other by the amount of family transition that is required by a particular life event o These transitions are considered “normal” o Carry implications for individual members who must critically assess their own well-being and alter their role function and expectations to meet the changing developmental tasks of the family over the life course.  Unexpected events do not occur in every family : illness, disability, miscarriage – can result in a crisis in the family o These events can alter the developmental course for all family members, altering normative movement of the family Developmental Tasks  Young Adulthood o Come in terms with family or origin  Must separate successfully from family of origin o Family of origin is a powerful shaper of reality, influencing who, when, how and whether young adult will marry and how they will carry out all succeeding stages of the family life cycle  o Formulation of personal life goals  What they take from family  What they leave behind  What they create for themselves o Problem is prolonged dependency  Difficulty establishing boundaries
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