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McGill University
NUR1 221
Sebastien Breau

Family definition • According to Stephanie Coontz: family originally meant band of slaves • Murdock’s definition: o “Social group characterized by common residence, economic co-operation and reproduction. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship and one or more children, own or adopted of the sexually cohabiting adults” • Assumptions: common residence, economic cooperation, reproduction, sexuality • Family studies: anthropology, sociology, economics, political science, public health policies, psychology, nursing, religion, law Tracking family diversity th th st Marriage – 19 Century Early 20 Century Consumer Post-Modern – 21 Century Patrilocal – stem 14 th Industrialization – diverse forms Crisis of early 20 century century th th Household 17 – 19 Colonial family - kinship Modern-Post 1950’s – traditional century nuclear Descent group 1970’s Patrilocal – 14 th Descent Group – Privilege Matrilineal - Patrilineal Century Stem-extended to 17th century – man’s offspring with Mediterranean values nuclear wife extra Household 17 – 19 th 19 century – couple with children Polynesia and Europe (16 century) century First Nations – Cree and Iroquois Families • Patrilocal – oldest brother is authority of all siblings and spouses • Stem – oldest son and family live with parents becoming an extended family th • Household in 17 century included boarders, servants- common residence under authority of household head rather than blood relatedness • Descent group – one of inheriting priviledge and property • Common description of a married couplethith co-resident children was distinguished from household resident or kin only in 19 century • Emotional meanings and psychological dynamics • Legitimacy of children • Healthy parent –child bonding – exchange and fostering of children as ways of cementing social ties • Same sex identification • Parenting techniques and roles and responsibilities i.e. weddings • Marital relationships 19 thcentury – closest bonds of middle-class women were with other women rather than their husbands (same as men who operated on a different sexual framework) Colonial Family – 18 th – 19th First Nations/Aboriginal Industrialization in 19 th Century Century French/British families Assimilation and eradication of Wage workers out of home First Nation’s culture production Colonial values under British Black families – kinship, extended Middle-class nuclear family rule families, role reversal orientation – child care (less (slavery/racism) child labour) Fictive kinship ties Chinese families (head tax) Lower class – women, children working in factories Patriarchal authority European immigration Family relations based on Mormon immigration (polygamy power encouraged) Disobedience punished • European settlers had extensive property, wealth and inheritance rights and the distribution of such varied among colonial families • Poor colonists tended to congregate in propertied households as apprentices, servants or lodgers • New France/ Quebec under British rule o Nuclear family structure in farming communities with large families o Church controlled education and promoted gender specific curriculum o Pronatal stance o Marriage at a younger age and no divorce (family solidarity more important than happiness) o Patriarchal family with seigneurial law  Tenant-controlled land needing more sons. • British o Massive immigration with entire families o Faster urbanization, industrialization than in Quebec o Right to private property and transition to capitalist and industrial society o Nuclear family structure, social status with households and intimate connection between family life and production. • British families o Christian principles o Fathers and husbands owned property and were responsible for subservient children and wives custody of moral character as well as economic well-being o British common law gave legal rights to men as heads of family o Divorce was possible after 1939  Men received better treatment from law retaining custody of children • Emergence of wage labor, a national market economy and the specialization of many occupations and professions from 1820’s. o Apprentices, journeymen and independent producers were replaced by wage workers. • Married women’s traditional household production taken over by unmarried girls working in factories • A growing number of middle-class families developed more private nuclear family orientation, keeping children at home longer • A new division of labor appeared among middle-class families • 1840’s – Victorian era o Middle-class notions of women being naturally endowed to provide the moral education of their children and to nurture them became widespread. o New ideology of parenting placed mothers at emotional center of family life. • Working class families were not able to adopt these changes o Worked in textile mills or factories or as domestic servants. o Depended on support networks of communities, neighborhoods and took in lodgers or boarders. • Family forms diverged in working class to single person and single-parent households. th th Early 20 Century 20 Century Family Values Crises – 1930’s – 1940’s Consumer 1920’s male breadwinner, Self-sufficient Marriage and fertility rate fell female homemaker, child in school family Compassionate marriage Cult of privacy Desertion and domestic violence Single people Family role in fostering individual Divorce increased fulfillment Multiculturism in Canada Acceptance of youth and leisure culture • Christian Europeans brought nuclear family structures to Western Canada o Patriarchal traditions - men property owners and responsible for women and children • Community development evolved with groups of immigrants with same/similar ethnic background settled together reinforcing traditional family structures • After 1880’s families took on “modern family characteristics” o Smaller families, lower fertility rates, companionate marriage, separation of home and work o Decline of respect for grandparents • Different family forms existed but divorce and unwed motherhood were less common • Higher proportion of single at turn of 20 century. • Life cycles of youth entering job, completing school, leaving home and marrying and setting up th household varied in 20 century. 1950’s Prosperity - Post 1950’s – Shift in Values in Post-Modern Family Modern Family 1970’s Average age of marriage Repudiation of traditional sexual double Diverse family forms dropped and divorce standard dropped Fertility and birth rate Rebellion against parental values Value independence, soared achievement, individualistic, competence Education gap between men Extension of civil rights to minorities, Generations X and women increased women, children Family life and gender roles Two-earner family increasing predictable – traditional form Reality – discrimination, cover up, child poverty, violence • Demographic changes increased women’s dependence on marriage reversing the gradual trend th in the opposite direction since early 20 century • Separation and teenage marriage with out of wedlock pregnanc
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