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Reserch in Nursing - Ch.1-14 Vocabulary.doc

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NUR1 422
John Hayes

Chapter 1: Introducing Research and Its Use in Nursing Practice Nursing research – systematic inquiry to develop knowledge about issues of importance to nurses and serves to establish a base of knowledge for nursing practice Paradigms – world views with underlying assumptions about the complexities of reality Positivist paradigm – there is an objective reality and that natural phenomena (observable facts and events) are regular and orderly (QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH) Determinism – events are not haphazard but rather the result of prior causes Naturalistic paradigm – reality is not a fixed entity but rather a construction of human minds, and thus ``truth`` is a composite of multiple constructions of reality (QUALITITATIVE RESEARCH) Quantitative research – collection and analysis of numeric information – typically conducted within scientific method, which is a systematic and controlled process – base findings on empirical evidence (through human senses) and strive for generalizability of findings beyond single setting Qualitative research – researchers within naturalistic paradigm emphasize understanding human experience as it is lived through the collection and analysis of subjective, narrative materials using flexible procedures that evolve in the field Basic research – designed to provide information for the sake of knowledge Applied research – designed to solve specific problems Research purposes – identification, description, exploration, explanation, prediction, control Chapter 2: Comprehending Key Concepts in Qualitative and Quantitative Research Researchers – investigators - undertake study Subjects – study participants (QUANTITATIVE), informants or respondents (QUALITATIVE) – provide information in a study Collaborative research – research team with both clinical and methodological expertise come together to address problems of clinical relevance Naturalistic settings – normal conditions, outside Concepts – abstractions or mental representations inferred from behaviours or events – building blocks of theories Theories – systematic explanations of some aspect of real world Variable – (QUANTITATIVE) – characteristic or quality that takes on different values (varies from one person to another) Dependent variable – behaviour, characteristic, or outcome that researcher is interested in explaining, predicting, or affecting Independent variable – presumed cause of, antecedent t, or influence on the dependent variable Conceptual definition – clarifies abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept being studied Operational definition – specifies procedures and tools required to measure variable Data – information collected during course of a study – make take form of narrative information (QUALITATIVE) or numeric values (QUANTITATIVE) Relationship – patter of association between two phenomena – when independent variable causes or determines dependant variable (causal relationship) Inductive reasoning – process of developing conclusions from specific observations Deductive reasoning – process of developing specific predictions from general principles Reliability – accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study Validity – soundness of the study`s evidence – whether findings are cogent and well-grounded Trustworthiness – (QUALITATIVE) – includes credibility and triangulation Credibility – achieved to the extent that the research methods engender confidence in the truth of the data and in the researchers’ interpretations Triangulation – use of multiple sources or referents to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truth Bias – influence that distorts study results Randomness – (QUANTITATIVE) – having features of the study established by chance rather than by design or preference Reflexivity – (QUALITATIVE) – process of reflecting critically on the self and nothing personal values that could affect data collection and interpretation Research control – (QUANTITATIVE) – hold constant confounding influences on the dependent variable so that its relationship to the independent variable can be better understood Extraneous variables – confounding variables that affect dependent variable Generalizability – (QUANTITATIVE) – assess extent to which findings can be applied to other groups and settings Transferability – (QUALITATIVE) – extent to which qualitative findings can be transferred to other settings Thick description – (QUALITATIVE) – mechanism for promoting transferability – rich, thorough description of research context so that others can make inferences about contextual similarities Chapter 3: Understanding the Research Process in Qualitative and Quantitative Studies Experimental research – researchers actively introduce a treatment or intervention – basic, factoral, crossover – randomization, control, manipulation Non-experimental research – researchers make observations of existing characteristics and behaviour without intervening Grounded theory - (QUALITATIVE) – seeks to describe and understand key social-psychological processes that occur in social settings phenomenology – (QUALITATIVE) – concerned with lived experiences and is an approach to learning about what people`s life experiences are life and what they mean Ethnography - (QUALITATIVE) – provides a framework for studying the meanings, patterns, and experiences of a defined cultural group in a holistic fashion Main phases in quantitative research – conceptual, planning, empirical, analytic, dissemination conceptual phase – (QUANTITATIVE) – involves defining the problem to be studied, doing a literature review, engaging in clinical fieldwork for clinical studies, developing a framework and conceptual definitions, and formulating hypotheses to be tested design and planning phase – (QUANTITATIVE) – selecting a research design, formulating an intervention protocol (in experimental research), specifying the population, developing a sampling plan, specifying methods to measure the research variables, designing procedures to protect subjects` rights, and finalizing the research plan (some cases do pilot study) Empirical phase – collect data and prepare the data for analyzing (code the data) Analytic phase – analyzing data through statistical analysis and interpreting results Dissemination phase – communicate findings and promote their utilization Gain entree - (QUALITATIVE) – enlisting cooperation of gate keepers or stakeholders within site – one of first steps in qualitative study Emergent design – (QUALITATIVE) – researches select informants, collect data, and then analyze and interpret them in an ongoing fashion – field experiences help to shape the design of the study Saturation – (QUALITATIVE) – redundancy of information achieved then qualitative study stops Chapter 4: Reading Research Reports Journal articles – provide brief descriptions of studies and are designed to communicate the contribution the study has made to knowledge IMRAD format – introduction (explanation of study problem and its context), methods (study strategies used to address the research problem), results (actual study findings), and discussion (interpretation of findings) Abstract – a brief synopsis of the study Statistical tests – procedures for testing research hypothesis and evaluating the believability of the findings Critique – careful, critical appraisal of the strengths and limitations of a piece of research, often for the purpose of considering the worth of its evidence for nursing practice Chapter 5: Reviewing the Ethical Aspects of a Nursing Study Tri-council Policy Statement – in Canada – respect for human dignity, respect for free and informed consent, respect for vulnerable persons, respect for privacy and confidentiality, respect of justice and inclusiveness, balancing harms and benefits, minimizing harm, maximizing benefits Self-determination – part of respect for human dignity – participants have the freedom to control the
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