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Notes Lecture 5

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Nutrition and Dietetics
NUTR 214
Louise Thibault

Lecture 5 – Lipids (Chapter 3 and 22) Fat important in food for: flavor, mouth feel, texture, viscosity, nutritive value (essential FA, fat-sol vit) Functions: Heat transfer, shortening power, emulsions, varying mp, plasticity, solubility, satiety Canadian Diet: - 31% Fats and Oil  5% Butter, 26% mayo, oils, margarine, shortening - 26% Meat & alternatives  16% Procesed meat, 10% fresh meat - 17% Milk Products  5% Fluid milk, 12% Cheese, Icecream, Yoghurt, cream - 13% Grain Products  2% Cereal, 11% Baked Goods - 11% Prepared Foods  chips, canned soup, frozen dinner, chocolate bars Lipids - Oils usually come from vegetable source. o Exception  vegetable fats solid at room temp coconut and palm oil. Fish oil is liquid - Food: focus on triglycerides  90-95% fats in foods, major lipid component in food o 3 FA attached to sterol (water soluble alcohol with 3C and 3OH) o FA linked to each OH of glycerol by ester linkage = hydrolysis - FA = chain of Cs with carboxyl group @ one end and methyl group @ other - Monoglyceride and Diglyceride = 1 and 2 FA attached to glycerol - FA: simple = 2Cs, mixed = >2Cs - Saturated: meat, poultry, milk/butter/cheese, egg yolk, lard, chocolate, coconut, palm oil, veg shortening - Monounsaturated: avocado, peanut butter, olives, olive oil - Polyunsaturated: fish oil, veg oils (corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean, canola), margarine, mayo - All fats present in these sources, but dominant one is the one we identify with - Cis in FA chain = kink - Notation: 18:2 w3 or 18:2 n-3, is 18C, 2 double bonds, 3 is third C from methyl (omega) end o Saturated: Stearic Acid (in cocoa) o Monounsaturated: oleic acid (in olive oil) o Polyunsaturated: linolenic acid (omega-3)? - Omega-6 interferes with Omega-3. Should be higher ratio of omega3 to 6 o Omega3 for better mental health o Olive oil has very little omega3 compared to 6 - Animal Fats are the only ones that can contain cholesterol - Cholesterol: soft, waxy substance. (1) made from liver, (2) from animal products - Saturated fats raise blood cholesterol, polyunsaturated lowers, monounsaturated can lower - Canola oil has the best mix of FAs (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated) o Lowest saturated compared to other oils o Highest monounsaturated (oleic) which has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels o Rich source of Vit E -
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