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NUTR 301 (12)


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McGill University
Nutrition and Dietetics
NUTR 301
Peter Bender

Psychology notes: lecture 2 (Jan 10) Brief History of Psychology: 1. Greek philosophers: -Raised questions about “who are we?” -Plato, Socrates (orations) -Hippocrates really got things going (father of modern medicine) -> looked at head injuries in war banging the back of your head, loss of vision 2. Church: Christianity: all from God Christianity not a good friend for psychology There is no human nature, it all comes from God (not much research going on) 3. 1750: phrenology - structure of the skull Feeling the bumps in the cranium Bumps would show different things Eg. if you have a larger forehead, you are smarter (explanation of character traits) 4. Wilhelm Wündt (1832-1920) First lab experiments : control Control experiments - isolate variable (variable is not compromised by other things) 5. Darwin: evolution of behavior adaptation How does the brain adapt? The brain adapts for one reason: survival Eg. when you have more than one stimulus, you tend to focus on the one that is more important 6. 20th Century Freud (famous for the unconscious nature of man) Skinner (hired by the armed forces in the second world war - mechanical ways of describing behavior) Humanism (we are more) Evolutionary approach Biochemistry of behavior MRI: brain research Three basic types of psychologists 1. Clinical (human problems) Problems, personal issues (people come to see you) “Cognitive restructuring” - changing your way of thinking Two areas come to mind: depression, phobia *Use of DSMIV: checklist describing a condition 2. Applied (specific situations) Real situations: Hired to focus on a certain issue Eg. the design of an airplane cockpit (make it easy, simple), new building - special needs “How could you get a student to eat a more healthy diet at school” 3. Research (adding to our knowledge) Knowledge base They add to an understanding of human behavior Major perspectives in psychology “How do we account for human behavior” Each perspective is based on a different assumption No one perspective is “correct” ...often called “schools of thought” Physiological perspective (see class notes) Learning perspective: -learned it from video games -reinforced when being aggressive -might have been punished when acting “soft” 1. John Watson: “black box psychology” Black box represents the brain Want to measure the response that comes out and look at the stimuli that come in --> S-R behavior Ivan Pavlov: classical conditioning Interested in seeing how dogs use saliva to break down food Measure saliva every day, eventually associated Pavlov with food and so began salivating before even getting the food (developed an expectation) CS --> CS Premise: only observable events can be studied scientifically 2. Operant conditioning Our behaviors are shaped by our environment What shapes us? Reinforcers (rewards) and punishment Speed tickets and dog treats 3. Observational learning: imitation Role of the media, social network, tv, etc. 4. Social learning We learn how to behave, what to say Learning roles: social setting “civility” (what to say and what to do - frontal lobe) “Does media violence play a role?” Cognitive perspective: Behavior is a function of mental processes (based on how you think) perception thinking memory problem solving Looks at information processing (how we take information in) We come to know how to behave eg. what thoughts may trigger aggression? *Seen as a key explanation of depression systemic depression transient depression seasonal affective disorder they see the world in a negative way/depressed way an individual’s perception of a situation --- influences behavior Self concept: “I’m a tough guy” Airline passenger model Same stimulus goes to passenger 1 (retired pilot) and passenger 2 (never flown before) passenger 1 doesn’t notice the air pocket put passenger 2 is freaking out same stimulus creating two different events Childhood cognition: work of John Piaget swiss-born child psychologists children deve
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