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NUTR 337 (6)

Infant feeding summary

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Nutrition and Dietetics
NUTR 337
Stan Kubow

Food 4-6 Months 6-8 Months 9-12 Months Notes Milk Breast feeding can Milk feeds decrease 600-800ml per Milk feeding risks: 1. Over/underdilution of formula Feeds continue from 150ml/kg to 600- day (underdilution-kcal dense formula->XS protein and solute-> 800ml per day. inc. risk dehydration & metabolic acidosis and hypernatremia (high Na and solute load) 2. Sterile water for milk formula (boil water 2 min-> pathogen free) 3. Microwaving formula (possible hot spots that can cause severe burns in infants) 4. Nursing Bottle Syndrome (Avoid nocturnal and long term use of bottles containing fluids other than water. Do not dip pacifiers or nipples in sugar or honey ->leads to severe dental caries) 5. Inappropriate milk substitues a. goat’s milk- df in folic acid, vit B6 and 12; higher in protein (3.6g/100ml) vs human milk (1g/100ml) and formula (1.4g/100ml)->risk of dehydration and higher renal solute load; Low Ca-P->risk of hyperphosphatemic tetany (painful and prolonged contraction) in small immature infants. b. Plant-based beverages (soy, rice beverages)- low kcal density(<80% of formulas); imbalanced nutrient profiles- >failure to thrive; insufficient vit.D (rickets, hypocalcemia); several (but not all) products bare label statements that the product is not a substitute for infant formula; dec bioavailability of some minerals due to phosphate compounds, particularly phytic acid (phytate, hexaphosphoinositol);case studies of infant malnutrition resulting from prolonged feeding of SB/RB as sole source of nutrition) c. Both a and b Mn content-> risk of neurotoxicity (infants uniquely sensitive); 34-36beverages analyzed exceed the range derived from the UL for 1-3 yr olds (in μg Mn/100kcal); overexposure is associated with long-term effects on learning ability until after 1 yr. Food 4-6 Months 6-8 Months 9-12 Months Notes Iron- Add Add Add different fortified textures- infant cereals for cereals with fruit infants, pieces, cereal bits cooked strained porridge Meats, Add strained Gradually beans, eliminate strained egg yolk meats, and introduce table meats Fruits Add strained Gradually eliminate strained & introduce chopped & well- cooked Vegetable Add strained; prepare Gradually s hygienically and with no eliminate strained added sugar, salt, fat foods and and oil introduce table foods Juice or Add formula by cup Finger Add those foods that Increase the use foods, can be secured with a of small ginger such as palmar grasp foods as the biscuits or pincer grasp toast develops Well- Add cooked mashed or chapped table foods Food 4-6 Months 6-8 Months 9-12 Months Notes SUMMAR -Iron-fortified rice cereal Infant breads and Balanced food -Introduce new foods at beginning of meal Y first to avoid df (Fe crackers; Mashed choices should be -Crunchy foods better liked than overcooked foods fortified foods continued vegetables and fruits, offered, but child -Portion sizes: 1tbsp/yr of age (1st 2 yrs of life- smaller for 1st couple yrs), and their juices. should be allowed portions, frequent feedings) followed by other single- Can transfer objects to
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