Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
McGill (30,000)
PHGY (1,000)
PHGY 209 (400)
Lecture

PHGY 209 Lecture Notes - Mhc Class Ii, Mhc Class I, Adaptive Immune System


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHGY 209
Professor
Ian Gold

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 16 pages of the document.
Dw too much about viral infection and complement
note: CD4+ are all T-helper cells[not cytotoxic]
Development of the immunoglobulin takes place in parallel with B-cell maturation.
B-cell maturation occurs in the absence of antigen,
Two immune response discussed:
-innate immune response
was thought useless
-adaptive immune response
was thought important but it was discovered opposite to have borrowed from
the innate response to make us more efficient.
Immunity can apply to bacteriahumoral immune response
-antibodies are humoral material..
SCIDsevere combined immune deficiency
They have neither humoral antibody, nor the ability to generate a cell-mediated
immune response…
The analyses of these children after death, shows us a lot of the immune system..
They have no Thymus-gland.. bone marrow are hypo-cellular, no lymphocytes or
lymph nodes
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AIDS
Started by Gay-related immune deficiency then was called-->acquired immune
deficiency syndrome(AIDS)viral infectionHuman immunodeficiency Virus
(HIV)
CAUSE: A particular cell that is missing or rapidly drops off and when it drops
below a certain level, the person is so sick that they die…
Missing cell is TH4-helper cella lymphocyte
ORGANS of the Immune System
Primary Organs
(Stem cells from the Yolk Sac and Fetal Liver)EXAM !!!(prior to
birth)
(these cells are passed on first to the Bone Marrow then the
Thymus Gland)
Bone Marrow
Thymus Gland
Secondary Organs(before birth these secondary organs are populated
with B-cells and T-cells from the primary )
Lymph nodes
Spleen
Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)(occurs in the Gut,
under the endoderm of the Bowel, and under the bronchiole tissue
of the tubes leading to the lungs

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Dw too much about viral infection and complement
note: CD4+ are all T-helper cells[not cytotoxic]
Development of the immunoglobulin takes place in parallel with B-cell maturation.
B-cell maturation occurs in the absence of antigen,
-First observation of the immune response in the west took place because of the
Smallpox disease.(NOT CHICKEN POX)
Dr. Edward Jenner discovered cure:
-This disease killed so many people, EXCEPT milkmaids…these milkmaids were
however still had the chance to catch other diseases(e.g. chicken pox)
-These milkmaids had Cow Pox(AKA Vaccinia), from the cows.. which made them
resistant to Smallpox!!(Cow pox gave the person resistance to Small pox)
-People were vaccinated by Vaccinia in order to be saved from smallpox… The
disease was then gone after a certain point..
ANTIGEN
1. Immunogen(refers to Antigen)(a material that can evoke an immune
response..humoral antibody in the serum or cellular lymphocytes in blood)
2. Hapten (+ Carrier = Immunogen)(is a foreign material that is too small
to induce a immune response by itself(e.g. Dinitrophenol)… a Hapten
requires a carrier molecule(the protein) which together makes it an
immunogen.. A HAPTEN IS WHAT IS TARGETED BY THE ANTIBODY…
3. Allergen (are antigen that cause allergy..e.g. from ragweed pollen)
Most allergens are completely harmless.. it is the immune response directed
towards them is what causes the damage. A person must be first exposed to
an allergen(e.g.breath in), which then evokes the immune system to
recognize the allergen and cause the damage. NOT immunogenic to everyone,
but whoever’s immune system has the genetic ability to react to the allergen,
will be affected by the allergy.. An offspring’s immune system is
susceptible to different types of allergys compared to the parent (not all
allergic to same shit… not really passed down exactly!)
4. Tolerogen: leaves someone tolerant to somethings that others are not
5. Ligand: Antigen binds to antibody.. so both are considered a ligand
EVERY CELL IN THE BODY contains the SAME GENOME
(e.g. the brain and the Liver have the same genome)
why the liver cell is liver cell and not brain, is because the brain cell information is
suppressed…different stem cells have their own purpose..

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Dw too much about viral infection and complement
note: CD4+ are all T-helper cells[not cytotoxic]
Development of the immunoglobulin takes place in parallel with B-cell maturation.
B-cell maturation occurs in the absence of antigen,
-Hematopoietic stem cells: give rise to ALL BLOOD CELLS…
Monocyte: as it comes out of the bone marrow, goes into the tissue and becomes the
fixed tissue macrophage(described later)
monocyte or macrophage depend on where they sit
The Three Lines of Defenses of the Host
1- The Coverings of the Body(Skin and Mucous Membranes,
which BOTH need to be present to keep you from being affected and evoking
a immune response)
-skin and mucous membranes: provide unpleasant living conditions for
microorganismsepidermis, Mucus, pH, Enymes
2 The Innate Immune Response
came early in evolution! Bone fish bla bla..stimulated by danger signals(PAMP)
comprise of cellular material:
-Phagocytic cells[eats microorganisms (neutrophils[has granulosidic
cytoplasm], macrophages[reaches out to ingest bacteria], interdigitating
dendritic cells[ingest bacteria[keep inside] and carry them as whole bug on
the surface.. have bacteria inside & outside])….also Natural killer cells
-Cells with inflammatory mediators(basophils, mast cells[not
emphasized much...], eosinophils)
comprise of humoral factors: Acute phase reactant(e.g. C-reactive
protein[used by doctors to see if inflammatory reaction is shown, Complement[a
sequence of molecules..talk in details later.. also present in adaptive immune
response?], interleukin,etc.) & Cytokinins (interferon-alpha)
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version