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Lecture

PHGY 209 CNS- cognitive motor.doc


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHGY 209
Professor
Ann Wechsler

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CNS – Cognitive/Motor
-In our tongue, there is about 10 000 taste buds (on papillae).
-Our gustative sensory system has 5 modalities.
-Protons (H+) usually block ion channels or interfere w/ their function (ex.Take the place of Na+ in sodium channels or
block K+ in potassium channels). That’s why licking salt and then taking tequila removes the salty sense (acid interfere w/
salty sensation receptors).
-Bitter sensation is a protection to prevent us from eating the wrong thing.
-Umami is a flavor enhancement used in a lot of food these days.
-We can differentiate about 10 000 odors, against 5 gustative modalities. Taste really comes from olfaction.
-There are only roughly 1000 different receptors in olfactory system. Odorant molecules have different degree of affinity
w/ each so we can distinguish 10 000 w/ 1000 receptors.
-Olfactory sensation doesn’t go to the thalamus like other sensory
systems.
-The limbic system is involved in a lot of emotional responses so
olfaction has a direct connection w/ the part of brain regulating
emotions.

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Consciousness
-Alpha rhythm is about 8 to 12 Hz, Beat from 12 to 30 Hz.
-REM=rapid eye movement
-Preoptic area & suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus and
reticular activating system (in brainstem) are the
major players in the circadian rhythm (8 hours of
sleep/16 hours awake).
-Antihistamine (against allergies) makes you sleepy because it
blocks the histamine release in the brain.
-Hemineglect can be a consequence of parietal damage.
-Part of brain dealing w/ emotions “rates” conscious experiences and is
closely linked w/ memory.
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