PHIL 237 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Consequentialism

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3 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Lecture2
PointsfromHughLaFollette“Theorizingaboutethics”
Manymoraldecisions“arequiteeasytomakesoeasythatweneverthinkaboutthem”.Moral
philosophyorethicsisusuallyabouttoughcases.
Whatistheneedfortheoriesinethics?Answer:avoidmistakes,
1) Usageofinconsistentethicalprinciples;
2) Usageofinappropriatemoralstandards;and
3) Inappropriateapplicationof(appropriate)moralstandards
Discussiononthemaintheories:
1) Deontologicalethics
2) Consequentialism
3) Twoalternatives:virtueethics/theoryandfeministtheory
HughLaFollette,“Howtoreadphilosophy”
Philosophersusuallywriteforoneothers,contrarytonovelistsorjournaliststhatareaimingatageneral
audience.
Whyphilosophyismorecomplex:
● Lackofskillsfromtheauthor:theymaynotknowhowtowriteclearly
● Differentstyleforhistoricalreasons
● Theideasarecomplex
Lastcomment:Ethicsishard.Andwhenitiswelldone,itlookseasy.
Deontologicalethics,consequentialismandvirtueethics
Socrates,Plato(studentofSocrates),Aristotle(studentofPlato):VirtueEthics
ReneDescartes(15961650):Rationalismeoccidentalmoderne
DavidHume(17111776):Englishempiricism
ImmanuelKant(17241804):Deontologism
JeremyBentham(17481832):Firstutilitarist
JohnStuartMill(18061873):Fatherofcontemporaryutilitarianism
Williams,Foot,Macintyre,Hursthouse:reemergenceofvirtueethics
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