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Lecture 11

Lecture 11

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PHYS 183
Tracy Webb

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th Lecture 11: January 30 , 2013  electromagnetic spectrum is all of the light in the universe  we can only see the visible spectrum  gamma rays have high frequency; radio waves have low frequency  blue light is higher energy, shorter wavelength than red light o blue is closer to gamma rays, red is closer to radio waves  nucleus contains positively charged protons and neutral neutrons; cloud of electrons surround the nucleus  most of the mass in the atoms is in the nucleus  atomic number = # of protons  atomic mass number = # of protons + # of neutrons  ie/ atomic number of H = 1, atomic mass number = 1; atomic number of He = 2, atomic mass number = 4 (since 2 protons & 2 neutrons)  elements can come in different isotopes  different number of neutrons o C-12 has 6 protons + 6 neutrons; C-13 has 6 protons + 7 neutrons; C-14 has 6 protons + 8 neutrons  a molecule is made up of 2 or more atoms which are bound together chemically  share electrons o ie/ 2 O = 2 H + 1 O  3 phases of matter o gas  water vapour o liquid  water o solid  ice  each phase has different chemical bonds but are made of the same thing  matter changes phase with changing temperature & pressure  important changes: o melting: breaking rigid chemical bonds between molecules o evaporation: breaking flexible chemical bonds between molecules o molecular dissociation: breaking of molecular bonds (turning molecules into atoms) o ionization: stripping atoms of their electrons  as you increase temperature, matter goes through the following stages: o solid  liquid  gas  molecular dissociation  plasma  fully ionized plasma  it takes energy to rip apart atoms  how is energy stored in atoms? o electrons have potential energy
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