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PHGY 209 Immunology.doc

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PHGY 209
Ann Wechsler

Body FluidsPhysiology Study of how living organisms work Includes the study of individual moleculesIncludes the complex processes that depend on the interplay of many widely separated organs in the bodyPhysiological Genomics Integration of molecular biology with physiologyPathophysiologyIntegration of medicine with physiology Many disease states are also physiology gone wrong It is important for pathologists to understand and know physiology to deal with diseaseCells Simplest structural units into which a complex multicellular organism can be divided and still retain the functions characteristic of life Certain fundamental activities are common to all cells All cells exchange materials with their immediate environment 200 different types of cells 4 categories of functionsMuscleNerveEpithelialConnective Cell Differentiation The transformation of an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell Muscle cells Generate the mechanical forces that produce movement Surround may tubes in the body When contracted they change the diameter of these tubes3 categoriesSkeletalCardiacSmooth Nerve cells Initiate and conduct electrical signals often over long distances Provide a major way of controlling the activities of other cellsEpithelial cells Responsible for the selective secretion and absorption of ions and organic molecules and for protection Located primarily atCover the body or individual organsLine the walls of carious tubular and hollow structures within the body Rest on an extracellular protein layer called the basement membrane Form the boundaries between compartments and function as selective barriers regulating the exchange of molecules Cells at the surface of the skin form a barrier that prevents most substances in the external environment from entering Found in glands that form from the invagination of epithelial surfacesConnective tissue cells Connect anchor and support the structures of the body Found in the loose meshwork of cells and fibres underlying most epithelial layers TypesFatstoring bone red blood white blood Tissues Aggregation of specialized cells4 typesMuscleNerveEpithelial Connective The immediate environment that surrounds each individual cell in the body is the extracellular fluidFluid is all between a complex extracellular matrix which is made up of a mixture pf protein moleculesThe matrix has two main functionsAllows for cells to attachTransmits information in the form of chemical messengers to the cells to help regulate their activities migration growth and differentiation Consists of collagen fibres and elastin fibresCollagen constitutes 13 of all the bodys protein They are the communicational links between extracellular chemical messengers and the cellsOrgansComposed of four different types of tissuesOrganized into small subunits called functional units who perform the organs functionOrgan system Collection of organs that perform an overall function10 organ systems in the bodyRefer to page 4 for systems Extracellular Fluid The fluid present in blood and in the spaces surrounding cells 20 of the fluid portion in blood is plasma80 is the interstitial fluidPlasma exchanges stuff with the interstitial fluid as it flows by so concentrations in both mediums are virtually the sameHowever Protein concentration in plasma is much greater than in the interstitial fluidExtracellular fluid may be considered as homogeneous though Intracellular Fluid The fluid present inside the cells Cells regulate their activities by maintaining differences between the two fluidsFluids in the body are compartmentalized
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