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Lecture 1.docx

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PHGY 210
Ann Wechsler

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Lecture 1 Endocrinology Hormones -> receptors -> physiological changes. Long distance response (primary), short distance, intracell response. Hypothalamus -> pituitary -> blood stream -> target Paracrine: two close cells, one releases hormone causing response in neighbouring cell Autocrine: cell talking to itself 6 steps and 6 possible sites of regulation Synthesis -> release-> transport-> detection -> change -> removal Most hormones are bound to transport proteins. Classical endocrine organs (listed from top to bottom) Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid + parathyroid (4), heart (atrial natriuretic peptides), adrenal glands (on the kidneys), pancreas (mostly digestive, less than 1% endocrine), ovaries and testis. Hypothalamic neurohormones could either be activating (releasing factors) or inhibiting (inhibiting factors) KNOW THE STEROID AND STEROID LIKE HORMONES SUCH AS ESTROGEN AND TESTOSTERONE. Glycoproteins and polypeptide based hormones are directly coded by the genes. Steroids and amines are encoded by the enzymes which are produced from genes, a secondary gene product. Pre and propeptides are barcodes are attached t
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