Hormones -> receptors -> physiological changes. Long distance response (primary), short distance,
Hypothalamus -> pituitary -> blood stream -> target
Paracrine: two close cells, one releases hormone causing response in neighbouring cell
Autocrine: cell talking to itself
6 steps and 6 possible sites of regulation
Synthesis -> release-> transport-> detection -> change -> removal
Most hormones are bound to transport proteins.
Classical endocrine organs (listed from top to bottom)
Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid + parathyroid (4), heart (atrial natriuretic peptides), adrenal glands (on
the kidneys), pancreas (mostly digestive, less than 1% endocrine), ovaries and testis.
Hypothalamic neurohormones could either be activating (releasing factors) or inhibiting (inhibiting
KNOW THE STEROID AND STEROID LIKE HORMONES SUCH AS ESTROGEN AND TESTOSTERONE.
Glycoproteins and polypeptide based hormones are directly coded by the genes.
Steroids and amines are encoded by the enzymes which are produced from genes, a secondary gene
Pre and propeptides are barcodes are attached t