Ventricular Tachycardia: very rapid sequence, PVC. These sequences are QRS signals that are not
generated by the nodes, but are caused by the ventricular muscles. This is a signal of a clot in the heart,
forcing blood into a ventricle. A ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation uses a high current to force the
heart to start working again, since this forces all heart cells to recalibrate itself, to become in sync again.
Mapping of the Cardiac Electrical Activity: directly attach electrodes onto a heart, on the epicardial
surface. The computer would then map of how the heart muscles activate by their order. Or using
endocardial balloon inside of a heart to measure it. Circus movement re-entry is when an anatomical
obstacle inside of the heart blocks the action potential from cycling through the heart. The CMR was
discovered by Mines, who died in 1914 at the age of 27.
Spiral-wave re-entry is when no obstacle is present, and the re-entry continues on in a spiral. Breakup of
activation wave when tachycardia causes the action potential to split into multiple fronts. This leads to
fibrillation. When shown on a ECG, multiple P waves are observed. Irregular heartbeat. Pulmonary vein
ablation kills a ring of muscle cells around the pulmonary vein, which then prevents the atypical signals
from the cells of the vein itself.
Excitation -contraction Coupling: the sarcolemma is the cell membrane of muscle cells. Calcium inflow,