Legislative & Executive Authority
How does the executive relate to the legislature?
How do voters relate to both?
NB: diff between presidential relationship and a parliamentary relationship.
(Semi) Presidential is direct, they vote for legislative branch and exec branch, as well as chief
executive. Legislature and executive are separate.
Whereas parliamentary, voters choose legislative branch who then chooses chief executive.
Indirect relationship between voters and exercise of power. Fusion of executive and legislative.
Diff systems of Government exist: Republican, Monarchical, one party states, etc.
• Governing party controls majority of seats
• Executive must maintain the conﬁdence of parliament
• PM and Cabinet Ministers are MPs
• First form of parliament in Iceland
• Today, famous House of Commons in UK
• Governing party depends on who controls parliament and which holds ofﬁce of president
• Separation of power
• President appoints Cabinet
• Elysée Palace in Paris and Palais Bourbon
Types of Cabinets:
• strong party discipline, one party controls 50% +1 seats
• Cons: UK 2015 election, conservatives got 50,7%, therefore getting full control of parliament
• Shadow cabinets exist to challenge existing cabinet. In 2015 case, Labour was shadow
• Party whips: supervises MP’s votes, monitor MP’s key issues, doll out beneﬁts and
punishments, manage party factions
• Collective responsibility: all members of cabinet must support ofﬁcial gov policy in public
• Cabinet meetings are state secrets
• Minister must resign if no longer supportive
• One can notice an “americanisation” with debates and focus on leaders, person more important
than the party even though it doesn’t reﬂect that way concerning institutions
• “catch-all” parties, because they’re trying to catch the majority of votes, in a case where most
voters are moderate (uni-modal voter base, in contrast to multi-modal)
• One party controls less than what is necessary => party with the most seats either governs
alone and seeks alliances on case-by-case basis, or seeks out coalition partner (cons