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Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

POLI 212 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM January 9, 2013 Mazo? and Howard for Friday (Monday). Largely focused on western Europe and contrasted with eastern Europe.  1989- implosion of Soviet Union and consequences.  Historical origins of the Soviet Union Pay attention to internal variations in the western pattern of political development, institutions and regime types. (France, Italy, Germany, and Britain).  West is different form east, but not a unitary entity. Topic 1: The Historical Stage (up to 1945)  1789-1945: “long 19 century” many wars and revolutions, during which democracy is an option, not a guarantee What sort of political regime should we live under?* What political rules are we going to live together under? * How do we politically accommodate the emerging working class?* *Sources of domestic instability. th The state is consolidated over the course of the long 19 century to the point where statehood is the only option.  Monopolizes the legitimate use of violence. Post 1945: emerging interest in creating institutions above the state. Fascism has to be defeated militarilyspeaks to its strength.  Occupation of Germany.  Separation of east and westSoviet Union Key cases of democratic consolidation (Germany, France, and Italy) required the removal of fascism as an option in order for stable democracy to be established. Economic reconstruction of Europe. Emerging vision of a federal Europe not strictly consolidated states. Democratic republicanism January 11, 2013 “Contemporary”- post 1945 1789-1945- “Long Nineteenth Century” French Revolution-Military defeat of fascism (revolution-war) no smooth transition [compare to Howard party of movement and order] 1789- French revolution 1815- first attempt at interstate solidarity 1870-1871- Franco-Prussian War, transition in French politics (Third Republic) 1848- series of failed social revolutions in western and central Europe organized around the importance of a republican regime (no monarchy) 1917- beaning of the end stage of the Russian Revolution 1918/1945- end of WWI and WWII (origin: Europe) 1933- transition to national socialist regime in Germany (peaceful) {division in Europe about how self-government should be organized}instability French Revolution:  Challenge to the kinds of principles that are used to legitimate old regimes challenge to French absolutism  Not just directed at the institutions of France, but of legitimating principles of all regimes throughout Europe  Democratic republicanism  *A new kind of political regime that would organize collective self-rule: o The complete rejection of the principle of monarchical rule (radical commitment)  Started as a form of reform  Local, but implications for all of Europe o Anti-Catholic: challenged the role of the organized church in the legitimation of the old regime  Challenge to Catholicism (as it was not French Catholicism), but also European Catholicism o Somewhat of a “civil religion”  Produced a stalemate between the republicans (party of movement) and the party of order (project that seeks to restore a [limited] monarchy, maintain role of Catholic church)  Explains the deep disagreement in French politics about the form of regime under th which the French should live (now on the 5 republic, no stable commitment until 1958 [transition from 4 ]) 1945 marks the beginning of democratic consolidation in Italy, France and Germany.  Possible only because fascism is defeated militarily, and thus removed as an option. o Form of regime based in organization under dictational rule: so powerful that it had to be defeated militarily.  Under republican regime  Depends on the willingness of Catholics to accept republican principles.  Italy and Germany defeated in WWII; remade  France was ambivalent towards fascism in Europe in the inter-war period (no fascist revolution), does experience a period of collaboration with Nazi-occupying powers [tainted by connection to fascism despite lack of revolution]must still remake itself  Modernizing political coalition: politically moderate factions of the party systems o Christian democrats [Catholics in France and Italy] o Socialists o Communists End-game of 1945 [France vs. Germany]  Politics is now very concerned about what to do with Germany  Germany and France have Franco-Prussian war, WWI, WWII  How to avoid a recurrence of Germany hostility in interstate relations?  Occupied in 1945, divided between the Americans, the French, and the British on one side and the Soviets on the other  Allies want to reconstruct Germanyshould they reindustrialize?  Morgenthau: keep Germany agricultural, no industrialization o 1 problem: German industrial economy was the engine of the European economy, would require European economic reconstruction o 2 problem: German society would be vulnerable to political mobilization under charismatic leaders form the far right  France resisted deindustrializing Germany o Proposed an alternative of binding an industrialized Germany to Europe  First institutions of economic integration in Europe  Constitution is written to create incentives to have politics expressed in moderate terms  Republican, federal constitution  Electoral rules are written so as to discourage the multiplication of small parties  Called the Basic Law: preambles expresses a desire for the political reintegration of east and west Germany at some point in the future o The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) becomes central to German politics, includes Protestants and Catholics, centrist January 30, 2013 No class on Monday Essay topics out new week. Patrimonialism: important part of how Pipes distinguishes the east and the west. Distinctive political features of the Russian empire. Entry into Russian and eventually soviet politics. Process of political modernization as a process where patrimonial state move towards a structure that is more rational Unitary vs. federal states. Both rational, legal state. Organization of the rational legal state build around specialized offices which are filled on the basis of merit. Differentiated from society. (autonomous from society) Filled by a process of appointment, not elections Infrastructural capacity. Sunk deep roots into the society. Imperial Russia  Eastern Europe and Eurasia organized in empires. 3 types: Hapsburg, Ottoman, Russian When these imperial structures began to change after WWI, changed in distinctive ways. After the Russian revolution Ottoman and Hapsburg empire collapsed set of new states. States organized at the core of the empire. (Austria, Turkey) political pragmatism. Contrast to the Tsarist empire as a consequence of the Russian Revolution. Collapses. Organized in a pattern that sets it apart. Emerges a new imperial structure, organized around the Russian core: USSR. Imperial structure. Legitimated by a new type of political ideology, Marxist-Leninist Why the socialist revolution in Russia? Russian economy centered around agricultural activity, not competitive internationally. Just beginning to enter the process of industrialization. What makes Russia distinctive?  political characteristics. Political structure of the Tsarist empire that encouraged the revolution. Ways in which a patrimonial state that may encourage a revolution that replaces the state altogether. Topic II. State and Nation Formation in Western Europe: Britain, France, Germany, Italy. State-Formation Early(State-Formation) Late (State-Formation) Early (Industrialization) Great Britain Belgium (1830) Late (Industrialization) France Germany, Italy British pattern of state-formation Unitary state  Composite state/union state  Way in which various kingdoms were incorporated into Great Britain.  Social terms; multi-national society. Cultural distinctions in the peripheries of the United Kingdom and how its managed while maintain territorial integrity. 1535: Incorporation of Wales. Always involves giving up a degree of local autonomy, one central elected legislature. No representative assembly. Does not take a federal form. One sovereign authority. One House of Commons. Unofficial recognition of the religious distinctiveness of Wales. Protestant monarch. Variation of Protestant. Wales tends to be Methodist. Importance of Methodism in Welsh society. Less recognition of the Welsh language. Incorporated fairly thoroughly. 1707: Act of Union. Marks the union of Scotland and England. When Scotland becomes incorporated. At this point, Scotland did have an elected local assembly. Part of the process of incorporation, elected local assembly was dissolved and the House of Commons recognized as the central authority. Certain form of institutional distinctiveness was recognized. Distinctive education, legal system. Importance of Presbyterian faith recognized in Scottish society. 1801: Changes relations between Ireland and central authority. Ireland gives up its local legislature. When you elect a representative, the person sits in the house of Commons. Fully incorporated in 1801. 1922: Formation of the formation Irish free state. Process of exit. Not an independent. Not a Westphalian state. Still part of the British empire. Not fully autonomous. Stepping stone to independence. Fully-fledge independent state in 1949, leaves the British Empire and the Commonwealth. 1997: Creation of legislature in Scotland and Wales. Local legislature in Scotland and Wales. First elected legislature in Wales. Change in the territorial structure in the structure of the United Kingdom. British government moved in the creation of these legislature in hope that this would stop further demands from nationalists. 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM January 14, 2013 Filpon(?) for Wednesday. Long 19 thCentury 1789-1945  Social revolution domestically  Interstate war in European society French Revolution  Forces of order versus the forces of movement.  Democratic republicanismmost radical element of the revolutionary process of mobilization in France (challenge to monarchical regimes). o Howard: French Revolution associated with nationalism, liberalism, and secularism. ADD: republicanism. If democracy was not consolidated in Germany etc., the pattern of the long 19 thcentury would likely have continued.  Definitive winner of WWII, solutions to domestic instability (republicanism- mainstreamed) peace.  By 1945, Catholics accommodated themselves to republican government, thus reducing the radical nature of republicanism.  Important to stability- Catholicism is important to European society (especially in 1945ish).  Protestant Reformation also a threat to Catholicism (from within Catholicism, internal). Accept monarchical principles, with constitutional limits. Therefore less of a challenge to the monarchy than republicanismliberal protestant monarchies. Problem of Germany Post-1945  German economy important to Europe  Link of industrial capacity to a propensity for war  French Proposal o Bind Germany to Europe o Allowed to reindustrialize due to importance to European economy o Production in iron, steel, and coal industries subjected to policies at the European level  Beginning of European economic integration Integration would build up momentum and interest in further (political) integration.  Spillover effecteconomic integration to political integration  EU is not a customs union o Free-trade among members o Common tariff barrier shared amongst all members According to this paradigm, Europe was organized into a system of states, which is conducive to conflict. Supranational integration was used to weaken states from above. Patterns of development that distinguish the east and the west:  West:  Incremental o Post-1945 in particular  State-led change most common, state-centric society  States have external sovereignty recognized by others, as well as internal sovereignty and monopolize the legitimate use of force and authoritative decisions  East:  Long periods of stasis/inertia punctuated by rapid ruptures or change  Organized around imperial model- states are not central to it  Organized around a Russian core within the USSR and satellite states o Satellites had neither fully internal or external sovereignty o Foreign policies subordinate to the interests of the USSR o Domestic policies subject to interference of the USSRproduction set according to Soviet interests Early consolidation of democracy in the west, very late in the east. th France 1945-1946 4 republic  Democracy not consolidated until 1958 and 5 threpublicmessy transition until 1960s  Buntz(?) Post 1945 considered the “long peace”.  Interstate war decreases, economic interdependence becomes further entrenched. The social question and industrial capitalism:  How to politically integrate and accommodate the working class.  How to extend the right to vote to the working classes o Suffrage was restricted by property and gender o As the working class grew, it had to be integrated into electoral and political institutions January 16, 2013 Industrialization  Early industrializer: Britain  Early industrialization connected to the transformation of agricultural products: textile production  Often family firms due to lower set-up costs, less dependent on state capital and credit  Moves toward a repeal to protection of agriculture (repeal of the Corn Laws) o When it did this, Britain implemented the first systematic income taxes to replace the lost revenue  Doesn‟t rely on the same policies as late industrializers  Late industrializers: France, especially Germany and Italy [both became states later as well, unlike France and Britain]  Late industrialization modern industrial sectors (steel and iron)  Higher start-up costs than a textile factory o More likely to turn to the state for capital assistance o Emergence of state banks with interest in specific industry productivity  There is a need to protect infant industries impact on foreign economic policy (tariff barriers, etc.) {France, Italy, and Germany}  Germany “marriage of iron and rye,” tariffs in both industries, supported by each industry. Similar coalitions in France and Italy  Tariffs serve as protection, but also as income for the government (foreign tax)  Revenue tariff cannot be high enough to actually prevent all imports, but not low enough that infant industry is crushed (protective versus revenue tariffs)  The timing of industrialization has consequences for the type of organization of trade union associations  Eventual consequences for politics power of working class organized in economy linked to political power of working class  Union types:  Craft unions specific to specific skills, forerunner is medieval/early modern guilds  Industrial union later in historical industrialization. Spans an industrial sector as a whole, not as fragmented. One union structure present organizationally on the factory floor. Radical socialism  Political project that wants socialist transformation in politics and society o Revolutionary route violent, abrupt change is required for a revolution and economic/institutional revamp  Purists: fear depending on political institutions because they will corrupt the movement, and the movement will stall along the way  Committed to non-participation in elections  Revolution must be sudden, sooner is better o Peaceful electoral transformation 1850s-1920s  Pragmatists: electoral process the only way to legitimately transform society  Risk of co-option accepted, longer timeline for transformation  Had an image of how the capitalist economy would develop over time allowed them to believe they would have the electoral numbers required to win o Capitalism would go through successive crisis (is built on them) o Each crisis will increase the size of the working class, will eventually be large enough to organize in a class-specific party and control the instruments of power o Reality: more differentiated labor force working class grows absolutely, not relatively  Will come to the fork in the road: will you bring in other classes? If so, you develop into democratic socialism o Social democracy accepts the principle of profit, recognizes certain prerogatives of capital and business in the economy, no committed to the nationalization of industry (necessarily)  Signals the working class contributions to class compromise Class Compromise [Social Democracy from Radical Socialism]  In exchange for these social democratic values, working class social democrats expect concessions from business: o Recognize the right of workers to be organized in the labor market (close party connection to trade unions) o Implicit/informal agreement from business to commit some portion of profits to the rationalization of domestic industry o Business will, all else equal, be committed to relatively full employment  Working class will show wage restraint in demands 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM January 21, 2013 Social democracy is en expression of working class politics, but will give up the goal of socialist revolution, and accept (and try to maximize themselves within) capitalism.  Accepts the institutions of electoral democracy The importance of trade unions in politics  The way different union configurations impact political management of the economy: o % of the labor force which is unionized o How the union structure is organizedwhether it is one peak association or several how centralized is it? o Centralized:  Able to punish unauthorized striking workers  Discipline workers with excessive demands  Follow factory slow-downs o Whether or not the trade union movement is divided along ideological lines, or is bonded by one ideological movement o Do trade unions have a formal association with a political party Philpott‟s Argument  Post-1789: disagreement about how to live in European politics but since 1648, European politics has been organized as a system of states  There are ways in which this system has been challenged by supranational integration post-1945  Nothing in this definition that tells us over whom these rules are to legitimately apply  That‟s what states do: regimes define, states say who via territorial boundaries  France: borders have been relatively unchanged, yet shifts in regime have had massive impacts  Modern territorial state:  1648: peace of Westphaliacrystalizes the political organization of Europe, ends the wars of religion, outcome of quarrel between protestants and Catholics [realists like]  pre-1648, series of options for European organization  post-1648,  Peace of Westphalia has 4 features:  Comprehensive peace settlement which applies to all of Europe o The first major political conference in Europe held by major political powers  Rejects universal papal and imperial authority in favor of the privilege of state autonomy  All states are presumed equal  Principle of non-intervention in the affairs of other states  Leads to: states are equal, autonomous, not subject to an overarching authority domestic hierarchy (the sovereign authority of state institutions) and inter-state anarchy (absence of authority between states)  Clear historical fault line with a before and after  It‟s robust: its provisions endure even today  Part 2:  Protestant Reformation  No protestant reformation, no peace of Westphalia, no modern state system.  Settlement that ends wars of religion/reformation: indirect outcome of protestant reformation is recognition of importance of state authority o Protestant propositions: when the protestant heresy emerged, it contained an implicit political commitment to “nationalizing states”.  Since the wars of reformations there have been two dominant challenges to the principle of monarchy and the primacy of the catholic church in European society:  Rooted in the protestant reformation (heresy in catholic church, theological dispute/debate)  Challenge of French revolution and republicanism to the hegemony of the catholic church (no implied commitment to Protestantism) o Where the reformation doesn‟t sink deep roots (no protestant challenge to Catholicism is possible) the challenge to Catholicism takes the form of republicanism (France, sort of Spain/Italy) o Where the protestant challenge is successful you will see liberal protestant monarchies emerge: can make peace with monarchy with constitutional, liberal limits on the authority of monarchs o Where republicanism emerges, no peace with principle of monarchy more than limits on a monarch, but the entire abolishment of monarchical system  Buntz and Pipes:  How to date the emergence of the difference between east and western Europe  How to interpret Russia, the Russian Emprire, and revolution  The kind of state found in the west is different from the type in the east: rational legal state of the west, patrimonial state of the east explains the divergence of east and west o Divergence begins before 1945 or Russian revolution 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM January 28, 2013 States are a kind of political constant that we take for granted. The boundaries of states tell you over whom the political rules of a regime apply.  There is an (albeit fuzzy) distinction between states and regimes.  Democratic regime: constituted around a set of elected offices. o State: officials are appointed bureaucratically  Authoritarian: positions not normally filled by elections.  States are conventional, but not naturalproduct of social interaction, political construction, origin in time o Once in place, very difficult to change (despite constructed nature)political equilibrium of Westphalia difficult to change. Distinction between unitary states and federal states.  States are a concentration of political authority differences in concentration and dispersion.  A state monopolizes the legitimate use of force within its boundaries. An effective state has internal sovereignty. [Max Faber??]  Unitary state: o Typical European state organized around unitary principles o Very few fully unitary states o Most states contain some form of cultural diversity (sub-state nations or immigrant communities) o France post-revolution assimilation around republican ideals, uniform offices across French territory  No recognition of the importance of local legislatures at the sub-state levels  Federal state: o Relatively new o Does two things: divides political power according to territory, and recognizes the existence of legislatures at the sub-state level o A federation will likely have a written constitution  Separates the responsibilities that are the prerogatives of the central state and those of the sub-state levels so that it requires constitutional change to roll back the prerogatives of local legislatures. o Territorial federation: Germany post-1945. Territorial divisions do not reflect cultural differences.  Australia, USA  Not designed to solve problems of sub-cultural division  Allows units to have some economic autonomy while benefitting from economies of scale o Multi-national federation: organized in order to share power amongst different sub-cultures (thought of as nations)  Divide power so as to allow sub-cultures to maintain identity  Difficult to observe in Europe Belgium.  Recent innovation in Belgian politics. Formed in 1830 by larger European powers as a unitary state.  Mid-1990s formed into federal system (Flemish and Waloons??)  Spain, Great Britain  In each case, there‟s a creation of legislatures at the sub-state level (1998 Scotland and Wales)  Britain no written constitution legislatures could be removed by British HOC (hypothetically), somewhat quasifederal.  The creation of sub-state legislatures doesn‟t guarantee long-term existence of the federation opens the door to referendums o Canada is a hybrid territorial provinces, but distinct culture of Quebec [First Nations??] Distinction between different types of states over political modernization patrimonial state vs. a rational legal state [historical].  Patrimonial: o Tend to be associated with imperial political structures o Depend on a systematic form of political patronage o The economy is often treated as the property of the ruler o Are associated with economies that are weakly monetized still depend on barter for exchange o Tend to be associated with economies that have an important agricultural sector o Rulers have not effectively penetrated society does not have “infrastructural power” sits on top of its society  Rational legal state: o Have infrastructural capacity have penetrated society o Distinction between state and society o B. positions are filled on the basis of merit, ideally competitive exams, and individuals who fill those positions work for a salary (positions are not personal property) o Begin to emerge as a consequence of industrialization monetization and shrinking importance of agricultural sectors o Patronage is either illegal or considered a violation of political convention o When rational legal states emerge, they have far-reaching social and political consequences b. or social and political life  During the transition form patrimonial, other forms of organization come to take on similar kinds of structures:  Firms are centralized (as opposed to capitalist economy)  Modern political parties are b. and industrialization deepens  Trade unions are b. structures.  Once it begins to dominate, b. political and social life beyond narrow understanding of what a state is. Patrimonialism and Russian somethingorother 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM February 6, 2013 Britain unitary state (early on in development)  1535, 1707, 1831 local populations give up local elections  1997/1998 introduction of legislatures in Wales and Scotland, but still unitary (legislatures created by act of parliament, can be rolled back by parliament, not constitution)  Composite state union of multiple kingdoms [English core, Celtic fringe]  Great deal of regime continuity: th  Relatively early religious settlement in British politics (17 century) text for detail o Led to a Protestant nation [aside form Irish Catholicism]  Anglicans, Presbyterians, Methodists  Early on settles the question of regime type o Enduring importance of constitutional monarchy  Political accommodation o National identity emerges slowly over timenationalism late th (late 19 /early 20th century) o Sense of cultural difference at the cultural level  Emergence of sub0state nationalist movements  Committed to the devolution of central power not outright independence o 1707, Scotland gives up legislature but keeps distinctive institution (education, etc.)  Ireland: territory loss for Britain (beginning in 1922-1949) declares itself republic o Never as fully integrated even after 1801 as Wales or Scotland (kept administrative structure and overseas empire Ireland governed as a colony) o Pattern of colonization that produced a cultural division of labor [Catholic vs. Anglican] o Office of Lord Lieutenant governed Ireland Ireland was of strategic importance to Britain (fear of contact with Catholic, republican France)  Always seen as a site of rebellion, thus governed differently o Catholic mobilization against British took the form of home rule o 1920: relations between British and Irish degenerated to the point of effective warfare  Anglo-Irish war begins in 1920 guerilla war  Irish bring British to bargaining table due to population support  1921 negotiations begin between British state and Irish movement  Ireland already has a legislature of its own  Negotiate: How much autonomy Britain will agree to concede to Ireland, and Over whom will these territorial concessions hold in the case of Ireland (territorial distinction between Catholic south and Protestant north)  Wanted north to be a part of independent Ireland (essential unity)  British agreed to the decentralization of power from Britain to Ireland (recognize Ireland as a dominion of the British Commonwealth), removed negative precedents for other parts of the empire (like Canada at the time)  IF: Britain would be allowed to maintain military/naval bases on Irish territory  British government proposed that northern Ireland have the opportunity to opt out of dominion status (denied essential unity, British didn‟t want‟ to displease Protestant population)  Northern Ireland opted out  Legacy: enduring problem of northern Ireland, crystalized in 1960s, only resolving recently  Rejected by many Irish brief civil war in southern Ireland between those who accepted the treaty and those who didn‟t o Catholic Ireland against protestant Britain, Republican Ireland against the liberal constitutional monarch o Territorial continuity: Irish exceptionalism France  Territorial stability  Boundaries of France historically fixed for long period of time o No serious challenges to territorial integrity of the French state, except for Algeria  Algeria incorporated unusually for a colony, considered to be a part of France  Many people would argue that the ideal of a nation state might be France  Regime instability  No stable religious settlement in French politics  Religious divide between Catholics and Republicans (if Republicanism were to be considered a civil religion)  Enduring conflict between church and state over education post- 1789, comes to a head in 3 rd Republic (1870-1939) o Republicans attempting to consolidate control, secularize education  Post 1789: administrative centralization organized around motif of 1, indivisible France o Meant to weaken importance of local cultural difference (tax on churches, other languages o Assimilation rather than accommodation, unwillingness to recognize differences o Remove intermediary bodies that separate local citizens from central institutions o France divided into a number of departments administered in the same way. February 11, 2013 France more unitary than Britain (composite)  French pattern of state formation/consolidation has commitment to assimilation as opposed to accommodation (Britain Scottish, Welsh, Irish)  France no de-facto recognition of differences  French version of Celtic fringe: Brittany doesn‟t have equivalent interest in home rule expressed in different way  Not only Celtic language, but also Catholicism  Looking to accommodate to republican regime (accepting Christian rd rule) contribute to 3 republic remaking of France  When there is change in the Celtic fringe (home rule innovated in Britain sub-state nationalism)  State rationalization in France is post-revolution phenomena, begins in French core attempts to remake all of France in its own image (radiating outward). Two factors:  Commitment to cultural homogenization o Attempt to create a nation state: political system in which the boundaries of the nation and state are coextensive  No room for accommodation o Remove local level institutions that could work against authority of central state o An attempt to encourage the use of French throughout the territory linguistic hegemony, removing Basque, Briton, Flemish o Control of educational institutions French state had to take on Catholic church: “culture/education wars”  Attempt to provide a certain set of civic values, forms identity  Administrative rationalization o Reorganized into a uniform set of departments o Do not possess legislatures of their own no decentralization of power, each department governed in the same way o Homogenization of local political authority  Contrast with Britain: CLEAR  About the extension of political authority, but also content: way by which republic attempting to consolidate power over the public, ensure all of France committed to republican civic values: forming nation state, also ideology is to be formed as republican Legacies of differences between France and Britain: -Templates with consequences for political issues and social phenomena that are seemingly unrelated  The way in which they are administered in the 20 thcentury Blue Sea Empires  Form of direct rule in French administration of colonial possessions: larger commitment to assimilation  Imperial administration connected to indirect rule o Larger interest in accommodation  Immigration policies post-1945, esp. post-1960s:  Two general forms associated with economic reconstruction post- WWII labor force decimation, and guest workers (southern Europe, middle east, north Africa) o Guest workers expected to be temporary and repatriated (although they became permanent in 1970s) o Guest workers often would bring families to place of work permanent part of population, have to be accommodated  Second stream of migration: end of empire o As decolonization proceeds, often streams of migration from former colonies to the mother countries o In contrast with guest workers, more likely to include different races and religions (North Africa France, India/Pakistan Britain)  Policy in Britain more accommodating than France, more interested in multiculturalism o France keeps the image of “one and indivisible”  Political devolution  Seen in Britain: legislatures in Scotland and Wales, effects TBA  France: resistance to devolution o Willing to de-concentrate power, but not to share it (no legislature in Brittany) Framework for Germany/Italy Comparison  Late formers: roughly late 19 thcentury (1870)  Entering industrial process later consequences for type of state that emerges  Emerge after the introduction of mass politics in European political systems (post-mass politics) o Extension of suffrage has already begun prior to formation  Implies that the political mass will have a particular role to play in state formation that they didn‟t have in Britain/France  Age of nationalism  New states and new regimes at the outbreak of WWI  Must endure the shocks of war in their infancy  Consequences for the way they form and for their political stability  Key general difference:  Italy emerges as a constitutional monarchy  Germany has been called an “empire state” is organized as a monarchy but is much more authoritarian (not a liberal/constitutional monarchy) o German state and regime is built upon a particular political coalition that marks of the conservative faction: large land owners and industrial elite elite which has a systematic policy of excluding the working class from political participation, despite era of mass politics o Consequences for German politics going forward  Italy‟s problem has two dimensions: o Constitutional monarchy is a compromise between right and left, will too be subject to challenges form right and left  Republicanism important to formation of Italy (Mazzini), constitutional monarchy too authoritarian  Large land owners and industrial elite on right, constitutional monarchy too liberal, but second best o Has to solve the problem of the north and south:  South agricultural, north more secular, south a region where Catholic politically and socially important February 13, 2013 Late Developers: Germany and Italy Context matters in the formation of states and national identities.  Late industrialization relatively strong states, used instrumentally in the process of industrialization (top-down process of industrialization)  Consider how military capacity depends on industrial capacity once in the Industrial Age  Interstate system prone to war, conflict geopolitical competition between existing states  This is the arena late states are entering  A process of catching up so as to be able to compete/preserve themselves in a competitive interstate environment  Form post-mass politics  Deal with the integration of working classes as they are forming (extension of suffrage to larger proportion of working class)  Contrast: consolidated state mass politics treated differently than late developers  Nationalism is more important in European politics than when British/French states formed  Very important to German consolidation in particular  Not long after formation, there has been agreement/compromise for regime type (shocks of war)  The fewer problems dealt with during state consolidation, the easier it is for a state to successfully become stable  These are the cases with breakdown/dictatorial rule coming about in 1930s etc.  Not related exclusively to the timing of state formation, but it is an important factor  Don‟t push contrast too far  Neither France nor Britain experience democratic breakdown o Britain (interwar) was never at the point of breakdown no crisis/deep-rooted instability o France does not experience fascist or national socialist dictatorship  There is Vichy France doesn‟t breakdown dramatically, but there are serious threats to the republican regime (1930s)  Consequence of military defeat/occupation  BUT great deal of sympathy for Vichy government form  Just another legacy of the incomplete French th Revolution political stalemate of late 19 /early 20 thcentury between party of order and party of movement  Germany 1806 and 1815  Two ways/powers in which consolidation could proceed: o Austria o Prussia (won)  Independent kingdom, core because of:  Maintained an efficient/large standing army  Its agricultural sector was dominated by large land owners/aristocracy  Had a rationalized state, legal landed state bureaucracy (controlled military as well)  Was a principality ruled by a relatively authoritarian monarch (enlightened despotism)  1806: invasion of German-speaking lands by Napoleon o Prior: Organized in loose, decentralized confederation with roughly 300 small principalities (final remnant of Holy Roman Empire) organized under Emperor  Consequence of Peace of Westphalia enshrined principle of sovereignty  1815: conference of Vienna which ends the Napoleonic wars o Beginnings of consolidation shifts from 300+ to 35 principalities, Prussia encourages the formation of a customs union amongst these principalities (mechanism by which to encourage train/economic interdependence) o Prussia emerges through competition with Austria (1860s), 3 wars, emerges as dominant German-speaking power  Denmark  Austria  France (1871) o Consolidates the importance of Prussia, produces the first institutional expression of what is now the German nation- state German second Reich o Prussian monarch becomes the German emperor o Otto von Bismarck becomes German Chancellor o Union of iron and rye industrial/agricultural  Second Reich o Regime rooted in elite support catering to elite needs o Structure is federal, but nominal federalism:  Still a political structure dominated by Prussia even if federal legally  Consequence of military defeat: Weimar to Third Reich o Treaty of Versailles very heavy reparations for Germany o Tremendous loss of manpower as a consequence of the war o Loss of territory due to Versailles terms (loss of Franco- Prussian War gains ousousloren?) o Hyper-inflation o Weimar was “a republic without any republicans (Mazower) o 1920 election: Communists received 2%, 17% in 1932; NSS 3%  37%; political middle being pulled apart by mobilization on the right and left (although parliamentary)  Also extra-parliamentary mobilization (Nazi and Communist militias in street battles) breakdown of political authority  1932 election: o German President Hindenburg trying to form a government (centrist) has to put together political coalition that excludes or includes the Nazis  The center cannot govern on its own  Allies with the Nazis brings Hitler into government as Chancellor (comes to power peacefully)  Hitler moves to consolidate his control and authority party state where Nazi party and state structures fused:  Dissolve the constitution  Outlaws trade unions  Eventually he rules illegal any parties that may be competitors to Nazis (extreme left and Center party in Germany to contest in political arenas)  Use of violence and terror  Image of how Germany could become more powerful (economically)  Commitment to conquest rather than trade to increase industrial capacity  Weimar o Some say if Weimar had been designed differently, it could have withstood shocks and avoided dictatorship o From 1920-1932 (4 elections), Germany had 25 different governments  Many coalitions were minorities, all short-lived  This type of turnover not conducive to stability o Too many parties in the system, no governments were majority governments o Germany had the wrong electoral system, a form of proportional representation, encourages a large number of parties in parliament (no barriers to entry)  Any party than wins locally can sit in parliament  If proportional representation is allowed, special rules must limit the number of parties I parliament o 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM Conference February 12, 2013 Britain: secular voting patterns  Early establishment as a protestant state: answered the religious question early Post-war consensus: welfare state (social safety net) was agreed upon by a large portion of the political spectrum (including the right significant)  Disagreement over precise policy, not principles Tony Blair‟s legacy:  Bush‟s puppet?  Unpopular reputation caused by Iraq arguably would no have lost popularity were it not for the war France  Revolution: rejection of hierarchy and implementation of republican values [secular]  Political culture of involvement o Revolutionary [unstable] nature to French politics  Inspired other revolutions in Europe (threatening) and South America  Democratic revolution empowered citizens to make political decisions (referendums, etc.)  Legacies: o Hostility toward organized religion o Disdain for pragmatism and compromise, which intensifies political conflicts somewhat polarizing  EU constitution: leaders pushed for yes vote, socialist populace voted no despite pressure Germany  3 points of state formation: o State building requires an extension of collective identity beyond family/village/local to one encompassing a broader collection of peoples  Religious separation  Composition of many smaller states and principalities (300+) in 1871 o o  Militarist culture in Germany: exposed geographic location 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM Post-WWII German Constitution:  Weimar president had “emergency powers” (removed)  Proportional representation unlimited number of parties could sit in the legislature, no minimum % (changed to 5% minimum) Pre-WWII Political Culture:  Highly developed “civil society” people were very involved in political groups  Very business/industry friendly relationships with government  Geographic insecurity defensive, militaristic attitude (Prussia)  Emphasis on collective action Italy:  Corruption o Lack of stable government (same party, but diverse, eclectic factions and coalitions within it) o Catering to elite voters?  Early 1990s o DC more of a center-right party post-Cold War, the motivation to support right-wing parties disappeared, Communist party rebranded themselves as simply a “left0wing” party o Momentum of European integration made it impossible for Italy to continue its course of action (economic especially), DC weren‟t adapting quickly enough Sieroff  “Fallacy of electoralism” just because there is an election doesn‟t mean there is a democracy  doesn‟t necessarily legitimize the political institution in place  5 Aspects of liberal democracy:  Responsible government The people we elect are the people who actually hold the power  Free and Fair Competition for Political Office anyone can compete for political office if they‟re the age of majority, no major barriers  Full and Equal Rights to Political Participation the same number of votes per person, everybody can vote [limitations until md-late 20 th century race, gender, literacy, etc.] [minimum for electoral democracy]  Full civil Liberties freedom of speech, association, religion, assembly, etc. o Exceptions (hate speech, inciting violence, etc.)  Well Functioning State with Effective and Fair Government [minimum for liberal democracy] Semi-liberal autocracy (vs. electoral democracy): may have democratic bits and civil liberties, but there is no turnover in the governing power, no way to challenge current authority 1/9/2013 10:39:00 AM February 18, 2013 IDs will be drawn from readings (course pack and textbook) Sieroff contrast between democracy and autocracy  Liepart majoritarian and consensual democracy Anderson most general distinction  Interested in regimes understood from a point of view of social policy Political regime:  Set of rules of the political game  Set out how power and authority is allocated among political agencies  Comes in formal or informal arrangements o Formal: written constitution o Informal: conventions that evolve from practice shape regime content (evolution over time)  Ambiguity Nothing in working definition that tells you over whom these rules are to hold  A state tells us over whom the rules of a political regime are to hold o We associate political regimes with states boundaries of regime are inked to boundaries of political state o State provides apparatus for dissemination and enforcement of rules  Distinction between regime and state is sometimes fuzzy  E.g. France:  5 Republics (regimes), while state borders have held constant  How Soviet Union broke apart change of regime that involved new state formation two distinct processes  Formal definition: A political regime (Sieroff) is simply the formal and informal structure of government roles and processes, including:  The method of selection of the government/representative assembly competitive elections, coups, royal prerogative, military selection, etc.  The formal and informal mechanisms of political representation  Patterns of repression Under what conditions does the regime use violence against citizens?  Regimes distinct from a particular occupants who occupy governmental roles  Regime is not government, is more basic can have multiple governments within a single regime  A regime sets the rules under which political competition occurs Sieroff: course-grain classification  Reduce complexity typology  Avoid typology in which there are as many single regimes as there are regime types  A good typology reduces complexity and successfully classifies all cases o “Jointly exhaustive”  Classifies all countries circa 2007 (193 regimes)  Tremendous variation  Argues that all cases will fall into two general types + qualifications o Democracy  Distinguishes between electoral democracy and liberal democracy o Autocracy  Some sub-types of autocratic regimes o Are there stable hybrid regimes?  Sieroff hybrids should be unstable One type of democracy is the natural endpoint of political development  Static typology interested in classification, description (not explanation)  Both Liepart and Anderson are more interested in explanation, why particular regimes emerge at particular points in time  Liepart: breaks down liberal democracy into sub-categories  There is significant variation within “liberal democracies”, title masks important differences  Distinction between majoritarian and consensual  The standard qualification (Sieroff): liberal democracy is democracy qualified by liberalism  Can also be qualified by: social (social democracies), Christian  Christian democracy emerges as an institutional solution to religious conflict (Catholics vs. republican government) o Implies that Christian democratic regime will instill specific policies, distinctive welfare regime vs. liberal or social democratic setting  Social democracy is an institutional solution designed to address problems of class conflict o Different types of welfare policies etc.  Liberal democracy emerges as a solution to different political values not rooted in class or religion  These 3 related to Anderson  Christian (continental), social, liberal (Anglo-American)  Liepart vs. Sieroff  Not interested in universe of cases  Interested in variations among liberal democracies  Sieroff not fine-grained enough  Working in 1945-1980 writing in 1989 o Implies that types are not exclusive to time period o Writing before the second and third waves of democratic transition of 1980s and 1990s  For the most part, his argument is about how to understand European political regimes (except Anglo- American cases Canada, USA, New Zealand, etc.)  All cases of interest meet the minimum standards of Sieroff‟s “liberal democracy” February 20, 2013 Lipepart  Compare to Sieroff Sieroff is static/descriptive, whereas Liepart is more explanatory  Explains why particular types of regimes emerge in particular cases  Match between political regime and social structure  Contrast between homogeneity and plural society  Working in 1989 with smaller set of cases  Set of cases that includes 21-22 cases (not universal) o Ambiguity of #  France (counts twice)  Issue of generalizability  Liepart is successful if he explains why particular types of regimes are found in particular types of country analysis would have internal validity  Because he is working with a sample and not the universe, is whether we might find other political regimes that are democratic that do not identify as one of his three types?  E.g. post-1989: Do Liepart‟s regime types help us to classify post- Soviet regime emergences? o Examination of external validity  All of Liepart‟s cases are liberal democracies according to Sieroff  Examines differences within this typology  Basic contrast  Majoritarian democracies o Built on a principle of concentrating political power in the hands of the majority  Consensus democracies o Organized around a principle of sharing/dispersing power  Is one regime better than the other?  Typology (dimensions):  1 : Institutional profile of a regime o Does the political executive concentrate political power? o Is the party system a two party system or a multi-party system? o Is the party system one-dimensional or multi-dimensional?  Is there one central political issue? o Is the electoral system a majoritarian (first past the post) system, or a proportional representation electoral system?  Majoritarian likely to be two parties, proportional representation likely to be multi-party.  2 : Territorial profile of a regime o Is power territorially concentrated or is it territorially dispersed/divided?  Unitary and centralized vs. federation that is decentralized.  Explanations for why cases can be typed as they are  Regimes reflect social characteristics or social structure  Different types of societies generate different types of democratic regimes  Homogenous societies in which I high degree of consensus exist, can afford a majoritarian competitive government. In societies that are not naturally consensual, the regime has to be designed to introduce as much consensus as possible. o “Consensus” don‟t use to describe social structure. Think instead of societies as more or less homogenous. o Homogenous societies are societies that share a political culture, in which political differences are not deep, are organized around a shared set of values, do not present deep
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