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POLI 212 - MARCH 12.docx

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Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

MARCH 12, 2012: Lijphart: Majoritarian: it is not about Consensus Consociational: how to accommodate Belgium and the differences/identities. It is Netherlands are the dominated by one issue. classic cases. Switzerland, Austria, and Canada. Epsing- Liberal: about how class Continental: mixed, Social Democracy Anderson: comes to be expressed in not as well defined political regimes and public by Esping-Anderson. policy. The Catholic inflection of the continental pattern: Connections: The classic cases with Consensus and Classic cases of majoritarian and liberal Continental consociational and democracies are Anglo democracies are a social democracy are American. residual category, Scandinavian. diffuse category.  What is the connection between majoritarian and liberal? There is substantial overlap. They could be called the Anglo American Cases. This is the case of the UK, settler societies with a shared history with the British Empire. Cases like Great Britain, New Zealand, Canada, Australia and the United States- they seem to be majoritarian (their political institutions are) but in terms of welfare regimes it is the liberal type. What is it that these cases share? One thing is the Westminster system (majoritarianism itself), and they begin as dominions in the British Empire. The US does not fit as comfortably as the other cases, because the others are power concentrated (to distinguish from power-sharing) but the republican structure of the American government makes the difference in how we should think about it- it doesn’t concentrate power but is not designed to share power either. It divides power. In terms of Esping-Anderson’s argument, they share a trade union movement that is relatively weak. These are cases in which socialism or a social democracy party is not really a second party in a two party system. The UK, and to some extent Canada, do have a relatively powerful socialist party as the second party. The British case may have an important degree of trade union organization, but the trade union structure is still very peculiar in European terms. The labour movement in British is more important than in other Anglo-American options. There is a tradition of craft unions (activity/skill specific designations in the economic, no industrial unions). The craft unions accord a lot of autonomy and power to the craft workers in the factories.  Continental is catholic, social democracy (Scandinavia) is primarily Protestant.  In Canada’s case, it is a semi-consociation. This is an argument about Canadian federalism. Federalism can be a consociational device- a set of institutions put in place to accommodate cultural differences. Part of Canadian federalism is consociational because Canadian federalism is built to accommodate sub-cultural differences concentrated in Quebec. But federalism is a mixed case:  There is territori
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