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POLI 212- JANUARY 13 Lecture Notes.docx

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Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

th JANUARY 13, 2012: The Long 19 Century Continued  Michael Howard Reading: He argues that the fact that the long nineteenth century is a period characterized by frequent wars and domestic and political instability. He argues that stable democracy and inter-state peace are relatively recent features of European political history. He argues that the French Revolution is a turning point in European politics and political development because after it things were far different than they were in the past. He wants to identify the forces in play in France and in Europe after the French Revolution and he refers to what he calls “the party of movement” and the “party of order.” The conflict between the two shapes th th European politics for all of the 19 and most of the 20 century. By party, he means something broader and more diffuse than a political party, he means loosely organized individuals and groups bound together by a shared set of values and bound together by a shared set of political commitments. These parties are divided by the question of how political life should be organized (in individual states and in the larger perspective of Europe as a whole.) He argues that this division argues political life that exists all through Europe even if it’s more visible in France. He refers to the division between parties as a “civil war,” and it shows how the French Revolution sets Europe on a different trajectory.  Lecture: In 1945, the long 19 century ends.  The Military Defeat of Fascism: Fascism initially is an option or alternative in domestic politics and a challenge to democracy in the inter-war period. Fascism could not be defeated domestically through the ballot box, and it was pushed out of Europe as a consequence of military conflict. Fascism threatened and crowded out democratic alternatives in inter-war years, and democratic consolidation in the aftermath of fascist takeovers required the military defeat of fascism. A measure of the sway or influence of fascism in Europe is what was taken to defeat.  The Occupation of Germany and Political Separation of East and West: Germany is occupied roughly along the lines of the occupying allied forced (divided between British and American sectors and the Soviet/Russian sector on the other). This division becomes the division between West Germany and East Germany. At this point the Soviet model of state socialism is exported to parts of East and Central Europe for the first time. In the process of occupation and separation, what emerges is a fork in historical development between East and West.  Politics in the East and West are completely different. The distinguishing features of the Western model of political development are successful democratic consolidation, stable territorial boundaries of states, market economies, the disciplining and monitoring radical political option, the hegemony of liberal democracy and the ideal form of political organization. “The long peace” is a reference to the relations between Western European countries after the war (no inter-state or civil war), and incrementalism as a model of political change (the long term creation of the European Union).  The distinguishing features of the Eastern model of political development are delayed democratic transitions, incomplete consolidation of demo
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