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POLI 212 (226)

1: The Historical Stage

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

1: The Historical Stage th The Long 19 Century - 1789 1945 - Marks off time period, gives it coherence = way it begins (revolution) + ends (war) - Beginning of Long 19 Century: French Revolution th - Howard: draw attention fact that long 19 century period charac by freq wars + domestic poli instability stable democ + interstate peace = relatively recent features of Eur poli history th - Long 19 century does begin w/FrRev FrRev = turning point Not just in history of Fr, also in Eur poli + poli development Turning point: point in time after which things are much diff than they were before S/thing happens in FrRev puts Eur diff trajectory - Identify forces in play in Fr + Eur after FrRev Party of Movement vs Party of Order Conflict b/w 2 parties shapes Eur poli for all 19 century + most of 20th Party = loosely organised individs in groups, bound together by shared set of values + shared set of poli commitments Divided essentially by question of how poli life should be organised, in individ states + larger perspective of Eur as whole Talking about poli compet b/w diff kinds of factions Division organises poli life in Eur after 1945 Conflict so deep b/w parties, refers to division = civil war - End of Long 19 Century: 1945 - Military defeat of fascism Fascism initially option/alternative in domestic poli, challenge to democ in interwar period Fascism couldnt be defeated domestically through ballot box pushed off historical stage through consequence of mili conflict Fascism threatened + crowded out democ alternatives in interwar Eur Democ consolid in aftermath of fascist takeovers req mili defeat of fascism Measure of sway/influ of fascism in Eur = what was taken to defeat/remove it - Occupation of Germany Ger occupied roughly along lines of Allied forces, divided Brit/Am + Soviet/Russ sectors Division b/w sectors becomes rough basis division Ger = W + E @this point, soviet model of state socialism = exported to parts of E + central Eur - Poli separation of E+W Fork historical development b/w E + W W pattern: successful democ consolid, stable territ boundaries of states, market econs, disciplining + moderating of radical poli options in domes poli, hegemony of lib democ as ideal form poli organis, long peace (stability of peaceful interstate relations in W after 1945 no interstate/civil wars), incrementalism as a model of poli change E pattern: delayed democ transitions, incomplete consolid of democ when democ emerges in parts of E/central Eur, devel which is not state-led but subordinated to needs + interests of imperial centre, centrally planned econs, change = long periods stasis punctuated by abrupt + deep change, territ borders unstable, ethnic wars in Balkans 1990s - Democ consolidation in W: Germany, France, Italy 2 defeated powers + discredited ally Ger + Italy = nationalist-socialist in interwar period Fr = began to collapse domes late 1930s, harboured sympathy fascism interwar period, substant collab w/Nazi occupying regime in WWII Democ consolid comes late for these 3 cases th Fr puts in place new repub constit after WWII, 4 Republic It puts in place constit 1 It Republic, after WWII WGer organised as republic begg w/basic laws (constit) 1949 Poli forces contrib democ consolid + writing constit for all 3 cases: Modernising coalition: inclu 3 imp poli parties + actors 1) Christian Democrats / 2) Socialists / 3) Communists th th Imp of Christian Democ in modernising coalitions: much of 19 cent/early 20 Caths in partic Eur ambivalent towards repub instit Divisions that emerged FrRev Democ Repubs (anti-Cath) / Caths suspic democ repubs + had interest in s/form of monarchical restoration Christian Democrats 1945 reconciled themselves to poli of democ repubs if Christian democrats not sup repub constits, civil conflict cont after 1945 In initial phases poli modernisation, communists part of poli story on board Communists had gained certain amount poli legitimacy domes poli b/c contribs resistance movements in WWII Communists quickly exclu fr/modernising coalitions b/c of fears that communist parties of Fr/It partic, domestic stooges of Soviet Union Mod coalitions vital to reconstruct in these cases had @core conservative centre of gravity dominated by Christian democrats W Eur poli consolid early years WWII (approx 1950), stable poli Exceptions: France only truly democ consolid when 5 Repub formed late 50s Fr poli 1950s = destabilised, as consequence crises in empire th th Fr = not definitively consolid as democ repub until make transit 4 repub to 5 5 Repub works b/c Charles Dugal charismatic authorit contribs consolid Measure consolid repub in Fr in general: republic consolid when no feasible option avail by which to attent authoritarian rule Spain + Portugal organised under auth dictatorship after 1945 Begin transit to democ 1970s Transit Porturgal connected to colonial crisis in Africa Transit Spain connected death of long-time leader Franco These are not dual transitions = these are poli transits, econs capitalist although heavily regulated by form of corporatism Spain: when experiences transit 1976-9, transit which challenges fr/regions, retains territ borders despite multinat character Sp soc (SU impossib implement democ change while holding state borders constant state fragmentation) - Poli + econ reconstruction Devas in war req econ reconstruction Early post-war period understood econ in attempts reconstruct domes econ Closely tied to fate of Ger, how to deal with Ger Problem Looking back historically, 1945, many observers saw Ger as cause of 3 wars Franco-Prussian/WWI/WWII How to avoid recurrence of wars connected to Ger mili indus complex Ger = econ linchpin of Eur, engine of Eur econ If allow Ger reconstruct econ, in order facilitate Eur growth, find a way Ger indus complexnot find a way to mili ends Dilemma: how to manage Ger prob given historically connection militarism + given imp of Ger econ to Eur econ S/policy makers proposed Ger deindus entirely, s/Am middle part of war proposed plan roughly these kinds of lines: Morgenthau Plan W/out powerful indus complex, Ger cant become mili Downside: expect Eur econ reconstruct occur slowly Key: find a way reindus Ger econ after defeat + occupation but at same time remove mili threat of ger Solution (partic interest Fr): allow Ger reindus, but find s/instit way bind Ger to rest of Eur In this solu, seedbed: Eur Coal + Steel Community 1 concrete expression of Eur econ integration, eventually EU - Vision of Federal (Western) Eur 3 lessons motivate interest in econ integration + motivate argument econ integration low policy areas might lead over time poli integration Econ integration low poli lead to integration high poli 1) Interest in permanent settlement of Franco-Ger relations Ger = guilty party, Fr = special interest in Ger Solu: pool coal + steel produc in Eur in way tie Ger econ other Eur econs Mili lesson: focused on Ger 2) Trade Wars in 1930s increase tension + hostility among states + make use of mili force in interstate relations more likely Fear: if s/thing isnt done remove incentives to engage Trade Wars, likelihood of use of force cont after 1945 Trade War: imposition of protectionist econ poli in Eur econ, erection of tariff barriers b/w st
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