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2: State and Nation Formation in Western Europe Britain, France, Germany, Italy

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Political Science
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

2: State and Nation Formation in Western Europe Britain, France, Germany, Italy General Introduction: Britain - 2 cases of states long histories (UK/Fr), 2 cases form relatively late (Ger/It) - Composite/union state - 1535: Wale incorp into larger unit - 1707: Scotland part of union state - 1801: Ireland gives up its parli, signs act of union - 1921/2: Irish Free State is formed - 1997/1998: Brit gov agrees to create legis in Wales + Scotland - Largely process of accommodation - Regions give s/thing up  right to independent instit of representation @local level - Relinquish parli of their own in order to be part of larger union - In all cases except Ireland, Brit state conts recog s/distinc cultural features of these regions - Certain kind of settlement built into logic of state formation in Brit  relig  Wales incorp = Protestant, but non-conformist, Methodist  Scot incorp = not Anglican, Presbyterian  Gives up parli, but maintains separate instit in law, edu, relig  Ireland never incorp same way as Wales/Scot b/c Ireland = Cath  1821 onwards cont governed much like colony  Lead 1921 to Irish Free State The Nation-State - Nat-state = poli unit in which boundaries of state coincide w/boundaries of nation - 1 nation = 1 state - Benefit of living in nat-state: nat state more integrated + solidary than state in which boundaries nat + state don’t coincide (multinational state: multiple nations living w/in single state) - Get more effective poli instits - Multi-natstatetoodividedtodeliverasmuchsolidarity,integration,polieffectivenessasnat-state - Nat-state emerges as ideal in 19 century (also beg’g of age of nationalism) - Emergence of nationalism = aftermath FrRev - Age of nationalism = imp for late state developers - Process of integration that forms Ger/It connected to certain kind nationalist expression - Further advantages of nat-state in 19 century: - Comparative advantage in Eur interstate soc  Domestic poli + soc capability that would make state self-preservation easier - Nat-state: common cultural, share sense cultural identity which characterises domestic population - Often case nationalism organised around language/distinc cultural markers - How many states should there be? - Large # relatively small nat-states? / Small # relatively large nat-states? - In 19 century: optimal size of states = relatively large  1) Consequences of interstate anarchy: war built into it as an option, better to be prat of s/thing larger for reasons of self-protection  2) Isn’t that much free trade @this time, have to depend for trade w/in state borders  econ terms, more effective to be part of larger trading union defined by state borders - Post-1945 prd: how incentives having large states changed  change # states there should be  Long-peace = war no longer an option in interstate Eur  Free trade dominates protection - Incentives to be part of large poli unit rather than small changed dramatically  Now possible to small + protect self + be econ productive + competitive - Consequences for poli of nat-states/multi-nat states?  Create reasons for sub-state nats to imagine controlling state of their own Great Britain and France (Early State Formers) - Both unitary states, but of diff types - UK: composite/union state - Dependent on certain kind of policy/attitude towards cultural differences in its peripheries - Brit tradit of state formation builds in imp degree of poli accommodation - Willing to recog s/distinc cultural distincs of living in peripheries (Scot/Wales/Ire) - Unitary state: single legislature, single rep assemb, House of Commons  Built progressively through process of conquest + incorporation  1) Removal of local legislatures  2) Recognition of difference - 1535: Incorporation of Wales - 1707: Acts of Union, joins Scotland to Great Britain  Relinquishment of local legis by Scots  Poli pressure organised around 1 legis, but @same time, explicit recog of cultural distinctiveness  take instit form  Retains distinc instit in law, edu, relig  instits that structure soc life  Help reproduce distinc kind of identity, imp part of underpinning of mod emergence of Scot nationalism (s/thing that withers away  language) - 1801: Ireland is incorporated, gives up legis  Integrated very diff poli than Wales/Scot  Ire gov much like colony in emerging Brit empire  Integrated diff b/c Cath  Brit fears + struck union that it did w/Ire alliance b/w Cath Ire + France in way that would jeopardize + destabilize Brit state - 1921/2: begin see one of most fundamental changes in mod/contemp period  Territorial cleavages  Removed Irish Q fr/Brit domestic poli  Emergence of class cleavage in Brit poli  Marks transformation of Ire fr/part territ core of Brit state to s/thing like dominion in Brit empire  Irish Free State formed after period mili conflict b/w Brit + Ire  Formed as consequence of negot b/w Brit + Ire  Ire able to bring Brit to bargaining table as consequence as the way they used force  Ire: negot for full independence for all of Ire  Got much less: Ire divided territ: NIre maintained poli connections w/Brit  Ireland became free state  dominion (not fully self-gov)  Fulcrum for Ire poli b/c once Ire dominion status, can cont down path to full independence (achieved 1949, left Commonwealth) - 1997/8: Brit gov recog creation of legis in Scot + Wales  Form of poli devolution  Imp point out: creation of legis does not amount to transition fr/composite to federal state  Legis that exist at prerogative of Brit parli  Neither written constit/set of conventions that treat legis in Scot/Wales as legis in true federation  Brit gov has prerogative to dissolve these parlis if it so wishes  Poli suicide to do b/c poli backlash in Scot + Wales  Why legis put in place? Give poli form to cultural differences that charac Scot + Wales  Poli recog of imp of Scottish + Welsh identity in both local + Brit poli  10-12 years later: Scot holding referendum essentially on independence  Evidence for how territ cleavage has persisted in Brit poli  Substate nation seeking state of its own even after being granted legis of its own  Granting legis further politicize issue of territ + poli integration  Wales moved fr/interest in cultural nationalism to more full blown poli nationalism  Only since creation of local legis that option of full blown independence gained traction in Welsh poli  All of this = legacy of multinational structure of Brit state - France: unitary state, but not composite/union state same way Brit state is - CONTRAST: accommodation + assimilation  If accommodation marks way in which territ + ppls are incorp in Brit, assimilation marks way ppl + territ incorp in Fr  notion of Fr 1 + indivisible  Esp imp in aftermath of FrRev + enter poli modernity  Much less willingness on part of Fr state to recog cultural differences  No interest in allowing regions to have distinc instits in civil society  Modernisingprojectafterrev=removeintermediaryinstitsthatmightseparatecitizens+state  Cultural differences periphery regions in Fr much less poli imp than instits + identity do in UK  Brittany: never get as powerful an expression of desire for s/thing like home rule as you do in Scot  way they are organised poli, consequence of states they live in  Language, culture, custom / mainly divided supp for Cath churc + repub  Debate about repub structures poli in Brittany  debate about regime - Territ boundaries relatively untouched in modern contemp period  Exception: loss of Alsace-Lorraine in Franco-Prussian war (regained later) - CONTRAST: Fr = no political devolution  Conts to be very poli centralized unitary state  Qualification: deconcentration of administrative power fr/central to local bureaucracies  Far short of allowing/endorsing local legis  Poli sovereignty rests in central instits (Brit: begun to be divided @substate leve
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