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Lecture 10

POLI 227 Lecture 10: Chap 10

2 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Rex J Brynen

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Democracy - Definition of democracy • procedural: regular elections, free vote • substantive: broader context of equality, pluralism, tolerance - Anyhow, must have competitive multi-party compared to restricted or one/no party system - Hybrid regimes - Three waves of democratisation + Arab Spring • first wave: (1828 to 1926) • 2nd wave (1943 to 62) 3rd wave (74 to 06) • - Latin America - Eastern Europe - Some Asia and Africa • Arab Spring (more failed than successful) - (Pre) conditions to democracy: • Economic wealth - Education and literacy - basic needs met thanks to more resources - socio-economic change to break old social order • Socio-economic structure - pluralism - equality - market economy (debated, does capitalism fuel development?) - bourgeoisie, middle class • External factors - support for authoritarianism or democracy can weigh - economic decline (such as USSR) (can weaken both sides, such as weimar republic) - Globalization (norms, media, human rights activism) • cultural context - regional politics • religion and politics - the problem of causality (does the system exist because of the attitudes of the citizens and vice-versa) - Transition: routes to democracy • revolutions => overthrow dictatorship, but not effective as often radical politics are the ones that fuel them • military coups • external intervention • incrementalism/internal reforms - regime-led - opposition-led - mixed - Transition: key factors Internal fragmentation among authoritarian regimes • • paradox of political mobilisation • politcal pacts (sets rules between opposition and regime, to reassure outgoing leaders) • process of elections • democratic consolidation (such as ending impunity, structural adjustment programs: • SAP’s usually involve such measures as: •
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