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Lecture 7

POLI 227 Lecture 7.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 227
Professor
Rex Brynen
Semester
Winter

Description
POLI 227 January 18, 2013 Lecture 7 Decolonization – Americas: Wave of decolonization in Latin America in the first part of the 19 century  Spanish and Portuguese control weak in the early 19 century  Poli pwr passes to local white elite – they began to press for more independence from Europe for various poli and econ reasons  Hastened by American and French revolutions, Napoleonic Wars (heavy burden of warfare), US (Monroe Doctrine) and British policy (policy encouraged independence of colonies for geostrategic reasons) Decolonization – Asia:  Much later – post-ww2  Partition of India incredibly violent (ethnic cleansing etc.)  Dutch attempted to reassert control in Indonesia post-WW2 (failure)  French attempted to reassert control in Indochina post-WW2 (had collaborated w/ Japanese occupation during WW2)... British wanted French back in Vietnam post-WW2  French experienced insurgency and ultimately lost Vietnam Decolonization – Africa:  Unlike the Americas, where Europeanized populations led the struggle for independence, nat’list mvmts based on societal changes derived from colonialism spurred demands for independence Africa and Asia  Anti-colonialism in rural areas  Traditional elites had been marginalized or coopted o Marginalized elites wanted their influence back o Coopted elites were empowered and began to revel in their authority and reject subordination o New elites emerged and asked why they were subordinate to frgners in their own society  Peasants o Difficulty engaging in widespread resistance o No spare time, econ and educational resources, limited social horizons o However, peasant revolts did occur when poli econ of rural survival was threatened by colonial pwrs (e.g. forced labout system) o Peasant resistance was mostly quiet non-cooperation  Anti-colonialism in urban areas  Alienated rural migrants o Different groups come in contact w/ ea. other  localized IDs change and expand  Small but growing working class  Students, civil servants, professionals o Found their upward mobility blocked by the European “glass ceiling” – huge source of grievances  Petite bourgeoisie (petty merchants)  Bourgeoisie o System formulated to favour Western trade and its agents  Exposure to: o Education and ideas o Other social groups o Tech, comm, organization o Strengths and weaknesses of colonialism o WW2 exposed the hypocrisy of Western colonialism  “Linkage politics” – building cross-class alliances by aggregating diff grievances to ultimately create a unified nat’list struggle o This wasn’t easy – desires and preferences were very disparate across classes o The
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